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State of Alaska

Health Indicator Report of Tobacco Use - Adolescents (Grades 9-12) - No Use (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 2)

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States.^1^ There have been over 20 million tobacco-related deaths in the United States since the landmark 1964 Surgeon General's report, which broadcast that smoking was a cause of cancer.^2^ And smoking kills more than just those who choose to smoke. Exposure to secondhand smoke kills approximately 50,000 Americans every year.^3^ One in 3 cancer deaths, 1 in 3 cardiovascular deaths, and 8 in 10 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease deaths are due to smoking.^2^ For every one person who dies from tobacco use, another 20 suffer reduced quality of life from tobacco-related illness.^4^ In addition, tobacco use costs the US economy more than $96 billion each year in direct medical expenses and another $97 billion per year in lost productivity;^3^ Alaska's share of these costs are approximately $601 million annually.^5^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs-2007. Atlanta; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; October 2007. 2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2014 Surgeon General's Report: The Health Consequences of Smoking - 50 Years of Progress. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. 3. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Annual Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Productivity Losses-United States 2000-2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 2008;57(45):1226-1228. 4. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cigarette smoking-attributable morbidity-United States, 2000. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 2003; 52(35):842-844. 5. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Alaska Tobacco Facts. 2015 Update. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Documents/Tobacco/PDF/2015_AKTobaccoFacts.pdf]. }}

Notes

** = Data not available.

Data Sources

  • [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
  • [https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)], Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC

Data Interpretation Issues

Alaska has conducted a statewide Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 1995 and biennially from 2003. Weighted data were not obtained in 2005 and therefore no statewide estimates are available for that year. A YRBS survey conducted in 1999 did not include the Anchorage School District and therefore was not considered a valid statewide estimate. No YRBS survey was conducted in Alaska in 1997 and 2001. Traditional high schools are sometimes called comprehensive high schools. They are public high schools that are distinct from alternative high schools, which serve students at risk of not graduating, charter schools, correspondence schools, and students enrolled in high school in correctional facilities. Responses are weighted to reflect youth attending public traditional high schools in Alaska. The three questions on tobacco use have been asked on the Alaska YRBS since 2003.

Definition

The percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded 0 days" on the [http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)] to the following three questions: (1) "During the past 30 days, on how many days did you smoke cigarettes?"; (2) "During the past 30 days, on how many days did you use chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip, such as Redman, Levi Garrett, Beechnut, Skoal, Skoal Bandits, Copenhagen?"; and (3) "During the past 30 days, on how many days did you smoke cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars?"

Numerator

Weighted number of adolescents (grades 9-12) who responded on the YRBS with "0 days" to the following three questions: (1) "During the past 30 days, on how many days did you smoke cigarettes?"; (2) "During the past 30 days, on how many days did you use chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip, such as Redman, Levi Garrett, Beechnut, Skoal, Skoal Bandits, Copenhagen?"; and (3) "During the past 30 days, on how many days did you smoke cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars?"

Denominator

Weighted number of adolescents (grades 9-12) surveyed on the YRBS with complete and valid responses to all three questions.

Healthy People Objective: Reduce tobacco use by adolescents: Tobacco products (past month)

U.S. Target: 21.0%

Other Objectives

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Leading Health Indicator 2: Increase the percentage of adolescents (high school students in grades 9-12) who have not smoked cigarettes or cigars or used chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip on one or more of the past 30 days to 80% by 2020.

How Are We Doing?

The prevalence of not using tobacco products among Alaska adolescents (grade 9-12) was 81.6%, maintaining a level above the Healthy Alaskans 2020 goal of 80% since 2011. Not all subgroups of adolescents have met the 80% goal. Those adolescents still at risk for this indicator in 2015 are Alaska Native students (66.5%), males (76.8%), students in the 12th grade (74.3%), and students receiving less than As and Bs (71.4%). The Healthy Alaskans 2020 goal of having 80% of adolescents not currently using tobacco products has been meet in most areas of the state except in the Northwest, Other Interior, and Y-K Delta in the Behavioral Health Systems regions and the Northern and Southwest areas of the Alaska Economic Regions. Among Alaska Native students, the goal was only met by those high school students in the Anchorage Municipality and Other Southeast regions of the Behavioral Health Systems regions and the Anchorage-Matanuska Susitna and Southeast regions of the Alaska Economic Regions. Data for the Fairbanks North Star Borough were unavailable. Prevalence rates for not using tobacco products from the YRBS are initially presented for all Alaska high school students, Alaska Native students, and the mean of the national YRBS. Subsequent analyses display not using tobacco products by demographic subpopulations (i.e., sex, age, use before age 13, race/ethnicity, ethnicity, grade level, and academic achievement) and regions.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

In 2015, Alaska adolescents (grades 9-12) had the same rate of not using tobacco products at 81.6% as the national average of 81.5%.

What Is Being Done?

In collaboration with partners statewide, the Alaska Tobacco Prevention and Control (TPC) program provides leadership, coordinates resources, and promote efforts that support Alaskans in living healthy and tobacco-free lives. Specifically, the Alaska TPC provides funding and technical assistance for regional tobacco prevention and control programs; provides media and other counter-marketing communications statewide; operates a tobacco quit-line that provides cessation counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) free of charge; ensures the ongoing surveillance of tobacco use trends in Alaska and the evaluation of program efforts; and supports tobacco-free partnership projects in Alaska. Additional information on current tobacco prevention efforts in Alaska is available at: [http://www.hss.state.ak.us/dph/chronic/tobacco/default.htm] or [http://www.tobaccofree.alaska.gov]. A listing of strategies, actions, and key partners on this measure can be found at: [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/Actions-Partners_2_Tobacco_Youth.pdf].

Evidence-based Practices

As part of the Healthy Alaskans 2020 health improvement process, groups of Alaska subject matter experts met over a period of months in a rigorous review process to identify and prioritize strategies to address the 25 health priorities. '''Strategy 1:''' [[br]]Work with K-12 School Districts to implement Gold Standard Tobacco-Free Campus policies. Policies should apply to all staff, students and visitors at all times, and include emerging tobacco products. Evidence Base: The Community Guide, Surgeon General's Report on Youth and Young Adults, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Best Practices all list comprehensive tobacco-free campuses as an evidence-based strategy to change social norms and create positive environments for young people. '''Sources:''' [http://www.thecommunityguide.org/index.html The Community Guide] US Department of Health and Human Services. [http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/preventing-youth-tobacco-use/index.html Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General]. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012. CDC - [http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/stateandcommunity/best_practices/index.htm Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs] '''Strategy 2:''' Increase the price of all tobacco products to an amount proven to impact consumption and prevent youth initiation. Policies include local and statewide tax increases. '''Evidence Base:''' CDC Best Practices, The Community Guide, and Surgeon General's Report on Youth and Young Adults all list increasing tobacco prices by more than 10% and creating parity between tobacco products as an effective method to prevent youth initiation. Kids are extremely price sensitive and are greatly impacted by increases in price. Every 10% increase in price reduces youth smoking by about 7% and total cigarette consumption by about 4%. '''Sources:''' [http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/stateandcommunity/comguide/index.htm The Guide to Community Preventive Services] [http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/index.html The Community Guide] US Department of Health and Human Services. [http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/preventing-youth-tobacco-use/index.html Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General]. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012. CDC - [http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/stateandcommunity/best_practices/index.htm Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs] '''Strategy 3:''' Conduct a media campaign based on social marketing principles. '''Evidence Base:''' CDC Best Practices, The Community Guide, and the Surgeon General's Report on Youth and Young Adults all list mass-reach health communication interventions as an effective strategy to prevent initiation, promote cessation and shape social norms about tobacco use. These interventions are effective in countering pro-tobacco messages by the Tobacco Industry. Research has shown youth are impacted by adult-targeted media. Social marketing techniques should be employed to most effectively promote behavior change. '''Sources:''' [http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/stateandcommunity/comguide/index.htm The Guide to Community Preventive Services] [http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/index.html The Community Guide] US Department of Health and Human Services. [http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/preventing-youth-tobacco-use/index.html Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General]. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012. CDC - Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. [http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/stateandcommunity/best_practices/index.htm]. A listing of strategies, actions, and key partners on this measure can be found at: [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/EBS-2.htm].
Page Content Updated On 05/11/2017, Published on 05/11/2017
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sun, 15 July 2018 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Thu, 11 May 2017 08:03:44 AKDT
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sun, 15 July 2018 13:12:46 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Thu, 11 May 2017 08:03:44 AKDT