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State of Alaska

Health Indicator Report of Tobacco Use - Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy

Smoking during pregnancy can harm the health of the mother and her baby by increasing the chances of premature birth,^2^ low birth weight,^3^ problems with the placenta, certain birth defects like cleft lip or palate,^4^ and sudden unexplained infant death (SUID).^5^ After birth, secondhand smoke is harmful to a baby's developing immune and respiratory systems.^6^ Babies who breathe in other people's cigarette smoke are more likely to have ear infections or more frequent asthma attacks.^7,8^[[br]][[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 2. Kyrklund-Blomberg, N. B., Granath, F. and Cnattingius, S. (2005), Maternal smoking and causes of very preterm birth. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 84: 572-577. doi:10.1111/j.0001-6349.2005.00848.x 3. Cigarette smoking and the risk of low birth weight: a comparison in black and white women. Alameda County Low Birth Weight Study Group. Epidemiology. 1990 May;1(3):201-5. 4. Honein MA, Rasmussen SA, Reefhuis J, Romitti P,et al. Maternal smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and the risk of oral clefts. Epidemiology 2007;18:226-33 5. American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The Changing Concept of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Diagnostic Coding Shifts; Controversies Regarding the Sleeping Environment; and New Variables to Consider in Reducing Risk. Pediatrics 2005;116(5):1245-55. 6. Strachan DP, Cook DG. Health effects of passive smoking. 1: parental smoking and lower respiratory illness in infancy and early childhood. Thorax. 1997;52(10):905-14. 7. Strachan DP, Cook DG. Health effects of passive smoking. 4: parental smoking, middle ear disease and adenotonsillectomy in children. Thorax. 1998a;53(1):50-6. 8. Strachan DP, Cook DG. Health effects of passive smoking. 6: parental smoking and childhood asthma: longitudinal and case-control studies. Thorax. 1998c;53(3):204-12. }}

Notes

Excludes live births for whom smoking status of mother is unknown.   ** = Data not available.

Data Sources

  • [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Alaska Health Analytics and Vital Records], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services
  • National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Data Interpretation Issues

Tracking maternal tobacco use changed during the transition from the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth to the 2003 revision.^1^ For data prior to 2013, Alaska used the 1989 version of the birth certificate which listed "Tobacco Use During Pregnancy" with check boxes for either a yes or no response. If yes, a space was provided for noting the average number of cigarettes per day. Tobacco use was included with questions about alcohol and weight gained in a section titled "OTHER RISK FACTORS FOR THIS PREGNANCY." When Alaska implemented the 2003 version of the birth certificate in 2013, CIGARETTE SMOKING BEFORE AND DURING PREGNANCY became a separate section that asked about the average number of cigarettes or packs of cigarettes smoked per day during the 3 months before pregnancy as well as in each trimester. Alaska did not have a significant difference in maternal smoking prevalence the last year of using the 1989 item compared with the first year of using the 2003 revised item.[[BR]][[BR]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Curtin SC, Mathews TJ. Smoking prevalence and cessation before and during pregnancy: Data from the birth certificate, 2014. National vital statistics reports; vol 65 no 1. Hyattsville, MD; National Center for Health Statistics. 2016. [https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr65/nvsr65_01.pdf]. Accessed March 21, 2017. }}

Definition

Percentage of women with live births who reported on the birth certificate to the [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Alaska Health Analytics and Vital Records] about using tobacco during pregnancy.

Numerator

Total number of women with live births who report on the birth certificate smoking cigarettes during any trimester of pregnancy.

Denominator

Total number of Alaska resident women who delivered a live birth.

Healthy People Objective: Increase smoking cessation during pregnancy

U.S. Target: 30.0 percent

How Are We Doing?

Overall, maternal cigarette use during pregnancy in Alaska has decreased significantly from 20.5% in 1996 to 11.5% in 2016. Although maternal cigarette use during pregnancy by Alaska Native mothers has also decreased, it remains over twice the average of all Alaskan mothers at 25.5% in 2016. The Northern region of the state maintained a pattern of having the highest rate of smoking during pregnancy (40.5% in 2016) among the 7 public health regions. This pattern was also exhibited for all Alaskans in the Arctic Slope (43.5%), Northwest Arctic (42.4%), and Norton Sound (43.6%) of the tribal health organization regions for the 5-year period from 2012-2016. Although women with less than a high school education continue to have the highest rates of smoking during pregnancy, this group's rate decreased by 32% from 41.8% in 1996 to 28.4% in 2016. Women in all levels of education significantly decreased their rate of smoking during pregnancy, however those who graduated from college markedly decreased their rate by 78.8% in the past 20 years. Similarly, women in all age groups significantly decreased their rate of smoking during pregnancy, but those under 18 years of age dramatically decreased their rate by 63% over the past 20 years.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

Approximately 8.4% of women in the United States reported smoking during their pregnancy in 2014^1^ compared to 13.3% of women in Alaska who reported smoking during any trimester of their pregnancy for the same period. Additional comparisons with an aggregate of states participating in the 2012-2013 Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) (28 sites in 2012 and 29 in 2013) found 10.1% of women reporting smoking during the last three months of pregnancy compared to 13% of women during their last three months of pregnancy in Alaska.^9,10^[[br]][[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Curtin SC, Mathews TJ. Smoking prevalence and cessation before and during pregnancy: Data from the birth certificate, 2014. National vital statistics reports; vol 65 no 1. Hyattsville, MD; National Center for Health Statistics. 2016. [https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr65/nvsr65_01.pdf]. Accessed March 21, 2017. 9. CDC PRAMStat, Selected 2012 and 2013 Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Indicators by State, Alaska.[https://www.cdc.gov/prams/pramstat/pdfs/mch-indicators/prams-alaska_508tagged.pdf] Accessed March 20, 2017. 10. Young MB, Perham-Hester KA, Kemberling MM. Alaska Maternal and Child Health Data Book 2011: Alaska Native Edition. Anchorage, AK: A collaboration of the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Alaska Native Epidemiology Center. October 2011. }}

What Is Being Done?

The [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/chronic/pages/tobacco/default.aspx State of Alaska Tobacco Prevention and Control Program (TPCP)] is located within the Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS), Division of Public Health, in the Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (CDPHP). The work of the TPCP is complemented by initiatives undertaken by many other organizations, including non-profits, tribal health organizations, state and local governments, schools, community groups, and the [http://alaskatca.org/ Alaska Tobacco Control Alliance (ATCA)], the statewide tobacco prevention and control coalition. The Alaska TPCP follows the model outlined in Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Prevention and Control Programs, a CDC document that describes strategies shown to reduce tobacco use when employed in a sustained and comprehensive manner. The model, drawing on the tobacco prevention and control literature and outcomes in states across the country, has four primary goals, which are: 1. Prevent the initiation of tobacco use by young people 2. Promote tobacco cessation among adults and young people 3. Eliminate exposure to secondhand smoke 4. Identify and eliminate tobacco-related disparities in specific population. Alaska's Title V Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Agency, housed within the DHSS, Division of Public Health, Section of Women's, Children's and Family Health (WCFH) allocated federal Title V Block Grant funds to address MCH priorities identified in the 2015 statewide needs assessment, such as tobacco cessation. The tobacco-related priority currently being focused on by WCFH is to reduce substance abuse among families, including alcohol, tobacco and drugs. This priority correlates with the Title V National Performance Measures 14a: Percent of women who smoke during pregnancy and 14b: Percent of children who live in households where someone smokes. Data for these performance measures can be found at [https://mchb.tvisdata.hrsa.gov/Home]. WCFH also participates in a nationwide collaborative aimed at reducing infant mortality and has partnered with March of Dimes to focus on reducing smoking during pregnancy by implementing an evidence-based tobacco cessation program call SCRIPT (Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment).^11^ [[br]][[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 11. SCRIPT - The Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment Program - Society for Public Health Education. [https://sophe.org/focus-areas/script-smoking-cessation-reduction-pregnancy-treatment-program/] Accessed March 6, 2017. }}

Evidence-based Practices

The Guide to Community Preventive Services. [http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/] This guide provides systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure.

Available Services

Alaska's Tobacco Quitline | 1-800-QUIT-NOW [http://alaskaquitline.com/] Alaska Tobacco Prevention and Control Program. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/chronic/pages/tobacco/default.aspx] 1-800-Quit-Now. [http://www.smokefree.gov/] Free call. Free quit coach. Free quit plan.1-800-QUIT-NOW (1-800-784-8669). Provides support in quitting, including free quit coaching, a free quit plan, free educational materials, and referrals to local resources.
Page Content Updated On 08/29/2017, Published on 12/27/2017
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Fri, 25 May 2018 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Wed, 27 Dec 2017 11:01:46 AKST
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Fri, 25 May 2018 20:11:30 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Wed, 27 Dec 2017 11:01:46 AKST