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State of Alaska

Health Indicator Report of Rape (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 12)

Sexual violence refers to any sexual activity where consent is not obtained or freely given. Anyone can experience or perpetrate sexual violence. Most victims of sexual violence are female. Perpetrators are usually someone known to the victim and can be a friend, intimate partner, coworker, neighbor, or family member of the victim.^1^ Sexual violence is a significant problem in the United States:^1^[[br]] -In 2017, 7.4% of U.S. high school students reported having been forced to have sex.^2^ More female (11.3%) than male (3.5%) students reported experiencing forced sex in their lifetimes.^2^[[br]] -An estimated 20% to 25% of college women in the United States report being victims of forced sex during their time in college.^3,4^ Information for 2015 from the [https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/2015-data-brief.pdf National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey] indicate: [[br]] -About 1 in 5 women (21.3% or an estimated 25.5 million women) in the United States have experienced completed or attempted rape at some time in their lives.[[br]] -2.6% of men or an estimated 2.8 million men in the United States experienced completed or attempted rape at some point in their lives;[[br]] -1 in 14 men (7.1%) reported they were made to penetrate someone else during their lifetime;[[br]] -Approximately 1 in 6 women (16.1%) and 1 in 10 men (9.6%) reported they had experienced sexual coercion in their lifetime; and [[br]] -More than a third of women (37.1%) and almost one-fifth of men (17.9%) reported they had experienced unwanted sexual contact.^5^ Rape is an under-reported crime; 63% of sexual assaults are not reported to police.^6^ Many long-lasting physical symptoms and illnesses have been associated with sexual victimization including chronic pelvic pain, premenstrual syndrome, gastrointestinal disorders, and a variety of chronic pain disorders, including headache, back pain, and facial pain. Immediate reactions to rape include shock, disbelief, denial, fear, confusion, anxiety, withdrawal, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. In addition, victims often experience anxiety, guilt, nervousness, phobias, substance abuse, sleep disturbances, depression, alienation, and sexual dysfunction. Women with a history of sexual assault are more likely to attempt or commit suicide than other women.^7^ [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Understanding Sexual Violence Factsheet 2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/sv-factsheet.pdf]. Accessed August 8, 2016. 2. Kann L, McManus T, Shanklin SL, Fint, KH, Queen B, et al. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2007. MMWR Surveillance Summary. June 15, 2017;67(8):1-479. [https:www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/2017/ss6708.pdf]. Accessed August 28, 2018. 3. Cullen F, Fisher B, Turner M. The sexual victimization of college women. U.S. Department of Justice. 2000. [https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/182369.pdf]. Accessed August 28, 2018. 4. Fantasia C, Fontenot HB, Sutherland MA, Lee-St John TJ. Forced sex and sexual consent among college women. Journal of Forensic Nursing. October-December 2015;11(4):223-231. 5. Smith SG, Zhang X, Basile KC, Merrick MT, Wang J, et al. The national intimate partner and sexual violence survey: 2015 data brief. NISVS. May 2018. [https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/2015-data-brief.pdf]. Accessed August 28, 2018. 6. Rennison CA. Rape and sexual assault: reporting to police and medical attention, 1992-2000. U.S. Department of Justice. 2002. [http://bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/rsarp00.pdf]. Accessed August 28, 2018. 7. Tharp AT, DeGue S, Valle LA, et.al. A Systematic Qualitative Review of Risk and Protective Factors for Sexual Violence Perpetration. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 14(2), 133-167. [https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838012470031]. }}

Notes

In December 2011, the Uniform Crime Reporting Program's definition of rape became: "Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim." This definition includes any gender of victim or perpetrator. Sexual penetration means the penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person. This definition also includes instances in which the victim is incapable of giving consent because of temporary or permanent mental or physical incapacity (including due to the influence of drugs or alcohol) or because of age. Physical resistance is not required on the part of the victim to demonstrate lack of consent. Proponents of the new definition and omission of the term "forcible" say that the changes broaden the scope of the previously narrow definitions by capturing gender neutrality, the penetration of any bodily orifice, penetration by any object or body part, and offenses in which physical force is not involved. Now instances in which offenders use drugs or alcohol on victims who know them, or offenders who sodomize victims of the same gender will be counted as rape for statistical purposes.

Data Source

Uniform Crime Reporting Online Data Tool, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice ([http://www.ucrdatatool.gov])

Data Interpretation Issues

The Uniform Crime Reporting Program provides statistics based on data contributed by local, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies. Caution should be used when comparing statistics from different jurisdictions, and consideration should be given to the various variables that affect crime and law enforcement's response in a given jurisdiction. The numerator of the rate is by place of occurrence, not place of residence. Statistics vary because of differences in how rape is defined and how data are collected. A limitation to Uniform Crime Reporting data prior to the definition change in December 2011 was that the definition used for "forcible" rape was very narrow and restricted to females. Cases were defined as penile-vaginal penetration of a female forcibly and against her will, therefore other types of rapes as defined by federal law were not reported.

Definition

The rape rate is reported as the number of rapes per 100,000 population. In December 2011, the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program changed its Summary Reporting System (SRS) definition of rape: "Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim."

Numerator

Number of reported rapes for a specific time period.

Denominator

Mid-year resident population for a specific time period.

Healthy People Objective: (Developmental) Reduce rape or attempted rape

U.S. Target: Developmental
State Target: Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 113.0 per 100,000 population. For the legacy definition of forcible rate, the goal was 67.5 per 100,000 females.

How Are We Doing?

In 2016, the rate of rape in Alaska was 141.9 per 100,000 population, an increase over the previous 3 years. The rate of rape in 2016 was above the revised Healthy Alaskans 2020 goal of 113.0 per 100,000 population brought about by the change of the indicator to rape as opposed to forcible rape. The Healthy Alaskans 2020 goal was set as a 10% improvement over the baseline value of 125.4 from 2013 brought about by the change in reporting the newly expanded definition of rape. The legacy definition of "forcible rape" was more restricted and limited to female victims. According to this definition, the rate of rape in Alaska is higher that it has been in previous years at 102.0 per 100,000 females in 2016.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

In 2016, the rate of rape in Alaska was 141.9 per 100,000 population, over 3 times higher than the level in the U.S. of 40.4 per 100,000 population. For the legacy definition using "forcible rape", Alaska had a rate of 102.0 per 100,000 females in 2016, a rate that was still over 3 times higher than the comparable U.S. value of 29.6 per 100,000 females.

What Is Being Done?

The [https://dps.alaska.gov/CDVSA/Home Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault (The Council or CDVSA)] was created by legislation and established in the Department of Public Safety in 1981. For more than 30 years, the Council has funded programs across the state of Alaska to end domestic violence and sexual assault.^8^ The Council funds: 24-hour emergency support; Safe shelter; Safety planning; Prevention initiatives; Children's services including child care, counseling, and group activities; Counseling for victims; Accountability for batterers; Information and referral for employment, housing, and medical care; Legal advocacy and civil legal referral; Community coordination focused on systemic change; and Rural outreach and community education programs. [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 8. Alaska's Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault. 2017 Annual Report. [https://dps.alaska.gov/getmedia/c2e9f84e-9e3d-4540-9064-4691521b3f5a/CDVSAAnnualReports2017;.aspx]. Accessed September 3, 2018. }}

Evidence-based Practices

As part of the Healthy Alaskans 2020 health improvement process, groups of Alaska subject matter experts met over a period of months in a rigorous review process to identify and prioritize strategies to address the 25 health priorities. Public health partners around the state are aligning work around these approaches adapted to Alaska's unique needs. '''Strategy 1:''' [[br]]Build community capacity for prevention. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]The standard for domestic violence and sexual assault community-based prevention work in Alaska is based on the prevention model developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Working with communities to build their capacity to support the work of prevention is the first step towards building comprehensive programming. Comprehensive programming coordinates strategies across multiple settings and populations within each community. Coordinated programming that includes multiple types of activities across multiple settings and populations is most effective in changing the behaviors, beliefs, and norms that impact the incidence of domestic and sexual violence. '''Sources:''' [[br]]Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancement and Leadership Through Alliances (DELTA): [http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/DELTA/index.html?s_cid=cd_281] CDC [https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/sexualviolence/prevention.html Prevention Strategies] [http://www.andvsa.org/pathways/ ANDVSA Pathways Statewide Prevention] Sabol WJ, Coulton CJ, Korbin JE. Building Community Capacity for Violence Prevention. J Interpers Violence. 2004; 19(3): 322-340. Chavis DM. Building community capacity to prevent violence through coalitions and partnerships. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 1995; 6(2): 234-245. '''Strategy 2:*''' [[br]]Promote values and beliefs that reinforce safe and healthy relationships. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]This strategy emerges from the social norms approach where inaccurate perceptions about norms, values, beliefs, and risk and protective factors are corrected to facilitate health promotion and violence prevention. Social norms interventions have been successfully used by other prevention efforts (e.g., obesity prevention, binge drinking, and tobacco cessation). Research is starting to show positive impacts on violence prevention. '''Strategy 3:*''' [[br]]Develop plans and approaches for early interventions with juveniles who commit acts of sexual abuse or act out sexually in inappropriate ways. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]Few interventions are available for juveniles who commit acts of sexual abuse or act out sexually in inappropriate ways. Developing and implementing early interventions is important because research shows "more than half of adult sex offenders began perpetration as juveniles" (Veneziano & Veneziano, 2002:248), the best intervention methods are those that are implemented as early as possible (Vizard, 2013), and early intervention methods (such as cognitive behavioral treatment) can reduce future perpetration (St. Armand, Bard, & Silovsky, 2008). *Sources for Strategy 2 and Strategy 3 can be found at [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/EBS/HA2020_EBS12_Rape.pdf]. A listing of strategies, actions, and key partners on this measure can be found at: [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/Actions-Partners_12_Rape.pdf].

Available Services

Statewide 24-hour Standing Together Against Rape: Anchorage Crisis Line 907-276-7273; Statewide Crisis Line 1-800-478-8999 [http://www.staralaska.com/]
Page Content Updated On 09/19/2018, Published on 11/02/2018
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Thu, 22 August 2019 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Fri, 2 Nov 2018 10:56:45 AKDT
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Thu, 22 August 2019 3:21:51 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Fri, 2 Nov 2018 10:56:45 AKDT