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State of Alaska

Health Indicator Report of Infant Mortality

Infant mortality is the most widely used measure of population health and the quality of health care. Infant mortality is defined as the death of an infant before their first birthday. Infant mortality represents a long-standing concern of public health. The infant mortality rate is not only seen as a measure of the risk of infant death but it is used more broadly as a crude indicator of: [[br]]* Community health status; [[br]]* Poverty and socioeconomic status levels in a community; and [[br]]* Availability and quality of health services and medical technology. The health and well-being of children and families across the globe are measured by infant mortality rates. Wide acceptance and the relative ease of calculating the annual rate have resulted in the infant mortality rate being commonly used for comparisons across regions, populations and time periods. Such comparisons of infant mortality rates are frequently used in needs assessments and to evaluate the impact of public health programs.^3^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 3. State Infant Mortality Toolkit. [http://www.amchp.org/programsandtopics/data-assessment/InfantMortalityToolkit/Documents/Why%20Focus%20on%20IM.pdf]. Association of Maternal & Child Health Programs. Accessed on November 29, 2016. }}

Notes

Rates based upon fewer than 20 occurrences are statistically unreliable and should be used with caution. Rates based on fewer than 6 occurrences are not reported.   ** = Data not available Rates based upon fewer than 20 occurrences are statistically unreliable and should be used with caution. Data for Alaska Native infant mortality updated by [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/data/default.aspx Alaska Bureau of Vital Statistics] in March 2016.

Data Sources

  • [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Alaska Health Analytics and Vital Records], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services
  • National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Data Interpretation Issues

The infant mortality rates displayed in this report are from the mortality file, which is based entirely upon death certificate data. The National Center for Vital Statistics and individual states also maintain linked birth/infant death data sets. In the linked file, information from the death certificate is linked for each infant under age 1 year who died in the United States and territories. The purpose of the linkage is to use the many variables available from the birth certificate to conduct more detailed analyses of infant mortality patterns.^1^ The [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/wcfh/Pages/mchepi/mcdr/default.aspx Alaska Maternal Infant Mortality Review - Child Death Review (MIMR-CDR)] uses the linked birth and death certificate data sets.^2^[[br]] [[br]] {{class .SmallerFont 1. Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu J, Tajeda-Vera B. Deaths: final data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Report 2016;65(4):1-122. 2. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Alaska maternal and child death review (MCDR).[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/wcfh/Pages/mchepi/mcdr/default.aspx]. Accessed February 21, 2018. }}

Definition

Infant deaths are those that occur between birth and one year of age. The infant mortality rate is the number of infants who died between birth and one year of age, divided by the total number of live births in the same time period. The infant mortality rate is presented per 1,000 live births.

Numerator

Number of infants who died between birth and one year of age among the resident population

Denominator

Number of live births among the resident population

Healthy People Objective: All infant deaths (within 1 year)

U.S. Target: 6.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births

Other Objectives

Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant to States Program: National Outcome Measure 9.1 - To reduce the rate of infant deaths. For more information: [http://mchb.hrsa.gov/programs/titlevgrants/blockgrantguidanceappendix.pdf]

How Are We Doing?

Alaska's infant mortality rate for 2016 was 5.4 per 1,000 live births. Infant mortality rates for Alaska Native people have been higher than the Alaska average. After a period of steady declines in infant mortality culminating in 2010, there has been a recent increase in infant mortality in Alaska. Alaska's infant mortality rate varies by region of the state. The lowest rate per 1,000 live births was in the Kenai Peninsula (3.9), ranging from 4.2 to 6.8 in urban areas (Fairbanks North Star Borough, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, City and Borough of Juneau, and Municipality of Anchorage). Rates ranged from 4.7 and 7.1 in the rural areas of Other Interior, Other Southeast, and Southwest regions. while reaching a near doubling of the rates in the Y-K Delta (10.8) and Northwest (11.2) regions for the 5-year average from 2012-2016 time period.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

In 2016, the U.S. rate of infant mortality stayed at 5.9 per 1,000 live births.^1^ In 2016, Alaska's infant mortality rate of 5.4% per 1,000 live births was ranked 14th among all states and was 8% lower than the national rate of 5.9 per 1,000 live births.^4^ Infant mortality (deaths at under 1 year of age) have been declining in the U.S. and Alaska since 1980. Neonatal infant mortality (deaths at less than 28 days) in Alaska have closely tracked the U.S. rate as a whole, while postneonatal deaths (deaths at 28 days to 1 year) have been typically been higher in Alaska than the U.S. average.^5^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu J, Tajeda-Vera B. Deaths: final data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Report 2016;65(4):1-122. 4. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Infant mortality rates by state, 2014. [http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/sosmap/infant_mortality_rates/infant_mortality.htm]. Updated February 3, 2016. Accessed October 6, 2016. 5. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Alaska neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates 1990-2012 (3 year moving averages).[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/wcfh/Pages/awareness/statistics.aspx]. Accessed October 6, 2016. }}

What Is Being Done?

Pregnancy outcomes are influenced by a woman's health and differ by factors such as race, ethnicity, age, location, health care access, education, and income. Preconception health focuses on actions women can take before and between pregnancies to increase their chances of having a healthy baby, including thinking about their goals for having or not having children and how to achieve those goals, addressing health issues with their health care provider before getting pregnant, and adopting a healthy lifestyle. Important steps women can take to improve their preconception health include^5^: [[br]]* Taking 400 micrograms of folic acid. [[br]]* Achieving and maintaining a healthy diet and weight. [[br]]* Being physically active regularly. [[br]]* Quitting tobacco use. [[br]]* Not drinking excessive amounts of alcohol and using "street" drugs. [[br]]* Talking to your health care provider about screening and proper management of chronic diseases, including depression. [[br]]* Talking with their health care provider about taking any medications. [[br]]* Visiting their health care provider at the recommended scheduled time periods for important exams, screenings, and vaccinations and discussing if or when they are considering becoming pregnant. [[br]]* Using effective contraception correctly and consistently if they are sexually active, but are not planning to become pregnant. [[br]]* Getting help for intimate partner violence. [[br]]* Learning about their family history and how this may affect their risks. Health care providers and women can work together before and during pregnancy to address problems if they arise and improve women's chances for healthy outcomes. The State of Alaska established the Alaska Maternal and Infant Mortality Review (MIMR) in 1989. The goal of MIMR is to reduce fetal, infant and maternal mortality in Alaska through a committee review process of all fetal, infant, and maternal death records.^2^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 2. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Alaska maternal and child death review (MCDR).[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/wcfh/Pages/mchepi/mcdr/default.aspx]. Accessed February 21, 2018. 5. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Alaska neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates 1990-2012 (3 year moving averages).[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/wcfh/Pages/awareness/statistics.aspx]. Accessed October 6, 2016. }}

Health Program Information

Alaska has assembled a diverse team of address disparities through policy and practice changes.^6^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 6. Health Resources & Services Administration. Collaborative improvement & innovation network (CoIINs). [http://mchb.hrsa.gov/maternal-child-health-initiatives/collaborative-improvement-innovation-networks-coiins]. Accessed October 6, 2016. }}
Page Content Updated On 04/16/2018, Published on 04/16/2018
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Mon, 23 July 2018 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 10:08:45 AKDT
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Mon, 23 July 2018 5:08:08 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 10:08:45 AKDT