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State of Alaska

Health Indicator Report of Alcohol Consumption - Current Drinking - Adolescents (Grades 9-12)

Excessive drinking accounted for approximately 4,300 deaths each year among persons aged less than 21 years during 2006-2010,^1^ and underage drinking cost the United States $24.3 billion in 2010 (1). During 1991-2007, the prevalence of current drinking among high school students declined significantly, from 50.8% (1991) to 44.7% (2007), and then significantly declined to 32.8% in 2015.^3^ Despite progress, current drinking and binge drinking are common among high school students, and many students who binge drink do so at high intensity (i.e., eight or more drinks in a row). Widespread use of evidence-based strategies for preventing excessive drinking (e.g., increasing alcohol taxes, regulating alcohol outlet density, and having commercial host liability laws) could help reduce underage drinking and related harms.^4^ Alcohol and substance abuse have a devastating impact on individuals, families and entire communities across Alaska. The effects of alcohol and other drug abuse include unintentional and intentional injuries, violence, high-risk sexual behaviors, and alcohol poisoning. Alaska experiences a disparately high rate of alcohol induced mortality compared to the U.S. Alcohol and other drug use is common among adolescents and is a strong predictor of dependence in later life.^5^ [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. CDC - ARDI - Alcohol-Related Disease Impact - Home Page. [https://nccd.cdc.gov/DPH_ARDI/default/default.aspx] Accessed May 11, 2017. 2. Sacks JJ, Gonzales KR, Bouchery EE, Tomedi LE, Brewer RD. 2010 national and state costs of excessive alcohol consumption. Am J Prev Med 2015;49:e73-9. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379715003542] Accessed May 11, 2017. 3. Esser MB, Clayton H, Demissie Z, Kanny D, Brewer RD. Current and Binge Drinking Among High School Students - United States, 1991-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:474-478. DOI: [http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6618a4] Access May 11, 2017. 4. What Works. Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption. The Community Guide. [ https://www.thecommunityguide.org/sites/default/files/assets/What-Works-Alcohol-factsheet-and-insert.pdf] Accessed May 11, 2017. 5. Substance Abuse Prevention Program, Division of Behavioral Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dbh/Pages/Prevention/programs/substanceabuse/default.aspx] Accessed September 15, 2015. }}

Notes

** = Data not available

Data Sources

  • [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
  • [https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)], Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC

Data Interpretation Issues

Alaska has conducted a statewide Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 1995 and biennially from 2003. Weighted data were not obtained in 2005 and therefore no statewide estimates are available for that year. A YRBS survey conducted in 1999 did not include the Anchorage School District and therefore was not considered a valid statewide estimate. No YRBS survey was conducted in Alaska in 1997 and 2001. Traditional high schools are sometimes called comprehensive high schools. They are public high schools that are distinct from alternative high schools, which serve students at risk of not graduating, charter schools, correspondence schools, and students enrolled in high school in correctional facilities. Responses are weighted to reflect youth attending public traditional high schools in Alaska. Questions on alcohol consumption by adolescents (grades 9-12) have been on the YRBS for Alaska since 1995.

Definition

Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded one or more days on the [http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)] to the question: "During the past 30 days, on how many days have you had at least one drink of alcohol?"

Numerator

Weighted number of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded one or more days on the YRBS to the question: "During the past 30 days, on how many days have you had at least one drink of alcohol?"

Denominator

Weighted number of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) with complete and valid responses for the question on the YRBS.

Healthy People Objective: Increase the proportion of high school seniors never using substances--Alcoholic beverages

U.S. Target: 30.5 percent

Other Objectives

Healthy People 2020 Objective SA-2.1: Increase the proportion of at risk adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who, in the past year, refrained from using alcohol for the first time U.S. Target: 94.4% Health People 2020 Objective SA-3.2: Increase the proportion of adolescents who disapprove of having one or two alcoholic drinks nearly every day--10th graders U.S. Target: 85.4% Health People 2020 Objective SA-3.3: Increase the proportion of adolescents who disapprove of having one or two alcoholic drinks nearly every day--12th graders U.S. Target: 77.6%

How Are We Doing?

Current alcohol consumption among adolescents has declined by over 50% between 1995 and 2015 for both all Alaska adolescents and Alaska Native adolescents. The prevalence rate was 47.5% for all Alaska adolescents in 1995, declining to 22.0% in 2015. Alcohol consumption is the most commonly used substance by adolescents in Alaska. Current uses of marijuana and cigarettes exceed current alcohol use among Alaska Native adolescents. Although the majority of adolescents reported using alcohol during their lifetime for the period between 1995 and 2015, major declines have occurred in the percentage reporting first use of alcohol before age 13, from 36.7% among all Alaska adolescents in 1995 to 14.3% in 2015. Declines in current alcohol use have been greater among males. Adolescent Alaska Natives are at decreased risk of current alcohol use as compared to those who are White. Hispanic adolescents are at increased risk for this measure compared to non-Hispanic adolescents. The percentage of current alcohol use increases with age among adolescents and through the four years of high school. Higher academic achievement (mostly As and Bs) is associated with lower current alcohol use. Over a quarter of adolescents in the Anchorage-Mat-Su (25.1%) and Gulf Coast (32.7%) regions reported current alcohol use in 2015. Alaska Native adolescents reported higher rates of current alcohol use than all Alaska adolescents in the Northwest and Southwest regions in 2015. The percentage of adolescents who think there is a pretty good chance or a very good chance of being seen as cool if they drink alcohol regularly was lowest in the Y-K Delta (1.6%) regions in 2015. Alaska Native adolescents reported lower levels of being seen as cool if they drink alcohol regularly than the mean of all adolescents within the region, with the exception of within the Southwest region where the rate for Alaska Native adolescents was slightly higher than the mean for all adolescents in the region. A detailed discussion of adolescent drinking occurs in the [https://www.stopalcoholabuse.gov/media/ReportToCongress/2014/state_reports/alaska_profile.pdf Alaska State Profiles and Underage Drinking Facts] from the Report to Congress on the Prevention and Reduction of Underage Drinking.^6^ Prevalence rates from the YRBS are initially presented for current alcohol use by all Alaska, Alaska Native, and the mean of the national YRBS. These data are followed by the rates for lifetime alcohol use for the same groups. As a basis for comparison, lifetime and current use of a variety of substances are presented. Subsequent analyses display current alcohol use by demographic subpopulations (i.e., sex, age, use before age 13, race/ethnicity, ethnicity, grade level, academic achievement, and regions). Current alcohol use prevalence by regions of Alaska are presented for the most recent time period allowing reporting for all Alaska and Alaska Native adolescents: 1) 6 Alaska Economic Regions and 2) the 10 behavioral health assessment regions based upon aggregations of 20,000 population. The YRBS also asks questions whether students think drinking one or two alcoholic beverages nearly every day has slight risk or no risk of harm; whether their parents consider it a little bit wrong or not wrong at all for them to drink one or two alcoholic beverages per day; and students' thinking whether there is a pretty good chance or a very good chance of being seen as cool if they drink alcohol. Each of these perception questions are followed by a regional breakdown using the 10 behavioral health systems assessment regions using data from 2015. [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 6. Report to Congress on the Prevention and Reduction of Underage Drinking. U.S. Department of Health and Social Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. [https://www.stopalcoholabuse.gov/resources/reporttocongress/rtc2014.aspx] Accessed May 11, 2017. }}

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

The overall prevalence of current drinking among U.S. high school students declined significantly from 50.8% in 1991 to 44.7% in 2007, then further declined to 32.8% in 2015.^3^ Alaska adolescents display lower current use of alcohol than the U.S. in general. In 2015, current alcohol use among adolescents was significantly higher in the U.S. at 32.8% compared to 22.0% for all Alaska adolescents and 19.2% for Alaska Native adolescents.[[br]][[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 3. Esser MB, Clayton H, Demissie Z, Kanny D, Brewer RD. Current and Binge Drinking Among High School Students - United States, 1991-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:474-478. DOI: [http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6618a4] Access May 11, 2017. ]]

What Is Being Done?

Headed by the Division of Behavioral Health within the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, the Alaska Committee to Prevent Underage Drinking (ACPUD) focused upon six specific strategies to reduce underage drinking:^7^ Availability: Availability of alcohol to underage persons will be reduced by limiting retail and social access. Prevention: Effective prevention will be comprehensive, begin early, be supported by evidence, increase protective factors, be developmentally appropriate and culturally-based. Treatment: Mental health and addiction treatments will be widely available and stigma related to these issues will be diminished. Coordination: Coordination will happen between individuals, families, communities, and governmental organizations to create comprehensive community solutions for underage drinking. Social Norms and Culture: Alaskans will create positive social norms by choosing to live and model healthy lifestyles. Research: Research and evaluation is necessary to ensure efforts are effective and allow for the development of new approaches.[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 7. Alaska's Strategies to Prevent Underage Drinking. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dbh/Documents/Prevention/UnderagedrinkingUpdated.pdf]. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. (accessed 9/15/2015). }}

Evidence-based Practices

The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends evidence-based strategies for reducing excessive alcohol use, including underage and binge drinking. These include increasing alcohol taxes, regulating alcohol outlet density, and having commercial host liability laws. Moreover, given the association between youth exposure to alcohol advertising and underage drinking, monitoring and reducing youth exposure to alcohol advertising through the implementation of "no-buy" lists (i.e., lists of television programming that risk overexposing youth to alcohol advertising based on the industry's self-regulatory alcohol marketing guidelines) might also help reduce underage drinking.^8^ Effective prevention of underage drinking will be comprehensive, initiated early, supported by evidence, developmentally appropriate and culturally-based.^6^ '''Recommendation 1:''' [[br]]Programs should focus on promoting nonuse, establishing healthy norms, increasing protective factors, and implementing strategies in school, university and workplace, in addition to other settings in the community. '''Recommendation 2:''' [[br]]Programs should begin at an early age, be interactive, involve the use of peers and social influences to facilitate non-use, be implemented with fidelity, provide sufficient dose and provide follow-up. '''Recommendation 3:''' [[br]]Youth alcohol screening should be a critical element that integrates systems with services, such as pediatric, school-based and university screening for alcohol use or abuse. '''Recommendation 4:''' [[br]]Community level interventions should be culturally-based, incorporate cultural values and practices, and involve the local community in design and delivery. A listing of strategies, actions, and key partners on this measure can be found at: [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/Actions-Partners_15_BingeDrinking.pdf]. [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 6. Report to Congress on the Prevention and Reduction of Underage Drinking. U.S. Department of Health and Social Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. [https://www.stopalcoholabuse.gov/resources/reporttocongress/rtc2014.aspx] Accessed May 11, 2017. 8. Ross CS, Brewer RD, Jernigan DH. The potential impact of a "no-buy" list on youth exposure to alcohol advertising on cable television. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2016;77:7-16. [http://www.jsad.com/doi/pdf/10.15288/jsad.2016.77.7] Accessed May 11, 2017. }}
Page Content Updated On 05/11/2017, Published on 05/11/2017
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Thu, 24 May 2018 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Thu, 11 May 2017 16:10:19 AKDT
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Thu, 24 May 2018 0:17:34 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Thu, 11 May 2017 16:10:19 AKDT