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State of Alaska

Health Indicator Report of Alcohol Consumption - Binge Drinking - Adolescents (Grades 9-12) (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 15B)

Excessive drinking accounted for approximately 4,300 deaths each year among persons aged less than 21 years during 2006-2010,^1^ and underage drinking cost the United States $24.3 billion in 2010.^2^ The prevalence of binge drinking increased from 31.3% in 1991 to 31.5% in 1999, and then significantly declined to 17.7% in 2015. Most high school students who drank were binge drinkers (57.8%), and 43.8% of binge drinkers consumed eight or more drinks in a row.^3^ Despite progress, current drinking and binge drinking are common among high school students, and many students who binge drink do so at high intensity (i.e., eight or more drinks in a row). Widespread use of evidence-based strategies for preventing excessive drinking (e.g., increasing alcohol taxes, regulating alcohol outlet density, and having commercial host liability laws) could help reduce underage drinking and related harms.^4^ Alcohol and substance abuse have a devastating impact on individuals, families and entire communities across Alaska. The effects of alcohol and other drug abuse include unintentional and intentional injuries, violence, high-risk sexual behaviors, and alcohol poisoning. Alaska experiences a disparately high rate of alcohol induced mortality compared to the U.S. Alcohol and other drug use is common among adolescents and is a strong predictor of dependence in later life.^5^ [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. CDC - ARDI - Alcohol-Related Disease Impact - Home Page. [https://nccd.cdc.gov/DPH_ARDI/default/default.aspx] Accessed May 11, 2017. 2. Sacks JJ, Gonzales KR, Bouchery EE, Tomedi LE, Brewer RD. 2010 national and state costs of excessive alcohol consumption. Am J Prev Med 2015;49:e73-9. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379715003542] Accessed May 11, 2017. 3. Esser MB, Clayton H, Demissie Z, Kanny D, Brewer RD. Current and Binge Drinking Among High School Students - United States, 1991-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:474-478. DOI: [http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6618a4] Access May 11, 2017. 4. What Works. Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption. The Community Guide. [ https://www.thecommunityguide.org/sites/default/files/assets/What-Works-Alcohol-factsheet-and-insert.pdf] Accessed May 11, 2017. 5. Substance Abuse Prevention Program, Division of Behavioral Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dbh/Pages/Prevention/programs/substanceabuse/default.aspx] Accessed September 15, 2015. }}

Notes

** = Data not available

Data Sources

  • [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
  • [https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)], Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC

Data Interpretation Issues

Alaska has conducted a statewide Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 1995 and biennially from 2003. Weighted data were not obtained in 2005 and therefore no statewide estimates are available for that year. A YRBS survey conducted in 1999 did not include the Anchorage School District and therefore was not considered a valid statewide estimate. No YRBS survey was conducted in Alaska in 1997 and 2001. Traditional high schools are sometimes called comprehensive high schools. They are public high schools that are distinct from alternative high schools, which serve students at risk of not graduating, charter schools, correspondence schools, and students enrolled in high school in correctional facilities. Responses are weighted to reflect youth attending public traditional high schools in Alaska. Questions on adolescent (grades 9-12) binge drinking have been asked on the Alaska YRBS since 1995.

Definition

Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded one or more days on the[http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)] to the question: "During the past 30 days, on how many days did you have 5 or more drinks of alcohol in a row, that is, within a couple of hours?"

Numerator

Weighted number of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded one or more days on the YRBS to the question: "During the past 30 days, on how many days did you have 5 or more drinks of alcohol in a row, that is, within a couple of hours?"

Denominator

Weighted number of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) with complete and valid responses for the question on the YRBS.

Healthy People Objective: Reduce the proportion of persons engaging in binge drinking during the past month--Adolescents aged 12 to 17 years

U.S. Target: 8.5%

Other Objectives

Health Alaskans 2020 Leading Health Indicator 15: Reduce the number of Alaskans experiencing alcohol and other drug dependence and abuse. Indicator 15.b: Reduce the percentage of adolescents (high school students in grades 9-12) who report binge drinking in the past 30 days (based on the following criteria: 5 or more alcoholic drinks in a row within a couple of hours, at least once in the past 30 days) to 17% by 2020.

How Are We Doing?

The prevalence of binge drinking in Alaska in 2015 meets the Healthy Alaskans 2020 (HA2020) goal of 17.0% with all Alaskan adolescents at 12.5% and 11.6% among Alaska Native adolescents. The attainment of the HA2020 is broad-based with only those students who are 18 years of age and older or in 12th grade exceeding the objective. Regional disparity exists in the occurrence of binge drinking with the Gulf Coast and Kenai Peninsula Borough regions having the highest prevalence for both all Alaska youth and Alaska Native youth. Since binge drinking data started being collected in 1995, the prevalence among all Alaskan adolescents has fallen from 31.3% to 12.5% in 2015, a 60% reduction. Despite the public health success in reducing adolescent binge drinking, the perception that drinking 5 or more alcohol beverages once or twice a week has slight or no risk of harm has increased to 36.2% for all Alaska adolescents and 44.1% for Alaska Native adolescents. A detailed discussion of adolescent binge drinking occurs in the [https://www.stopalcoholabuse.gov/media/ReportToCongress/2014/state_reports/alaska_profile.pdf Alaska State Profiles and Underage Drinking Facts] from the Report to Congress on the Prevention and Reduction of Underage Drinking.^6^ Prevalence rates from the YRBS are initially presented for binge drinking by all Alaska adolescents, Alaska Native adolescents, and the mean of the national YRBS. Subsequent analyses display binge drinking prevalence by demographic subpopulations (i.e., sex, age, use before age 13, race/ethnicity, ethnicity, grade level, and academic achievement) and regions. These are followed by analyses of the question whether students think drinking 5 or more alcohol beverages once or twice a week has slight or no risk of harm.[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 6. Report to Congress on the Prevention and Reduction of Underage Drinking. U.S. Department of Health and Social Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration website. June 2015. [https://www.stopalcoholabuse.gov/resources/reporttocongress/rtc2014.aspx]. }}

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

The overall prevalence of current drinking among U.S. high school students declined significantly from 50.8% in 1991 to 44.7% in 2007, then further declined to 32.8% in 2015. Trend analysis indicated that the prevalence of binge drinking increased from 31.3% in 1991 to 31.5% in 1999, then declined significantly to 17.7% in 2015.^3^ For all years reported, the percentage of high school students who reported binge drinking in the past 30 days was lower in Alaska than in the U.S. overall. In 2015, this percentage was 12.5% in Alaska and 17.7% in the United States. Since 2007, prevalence of binge drinking has declined more sharply among high school students in Alaska than the national average. Extreme binge drinking of 10 or more drinks among adolescents in Alaska at 3.5% in 2013 was only two-thirds of the national rate of 6.1%.[[br]][[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 3. Esser MB, Clayton H, Demissie Z, Kanny D, Brewer RD. Current and Binge Drinking Among High School Students - United States, 1991-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:474-478. DOI: [http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6618a4] Access May 11, 2017. }}

What Is Being Done?

Headed by the Division of Behavioral Health within the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, the Alaska Committee to Prevent Underage Drinking (ACPUD) focused upon six specific strategies to reduce underage drinking:^7^ Availability: Availability of alcohol to underage persons will be reduced by limiting retail and social access. Prevention: Effective prevention will be comprehensive, begin early, be supported by evidence, increase protective factors, be developmentally appropriate and culturally-based. Treatment: Mental health and addiction treatments will be widely available and stigma related to these issues will be diminished. Coordination: Coordination will happen between individuals, families, communities, and governmental organizations to create comprehensive community solutions for underage drinking. Social Norms and Culture: Alaskans will create positive social norms by choosing to live and model healthy lifestyles. Research: Research and evaluation is necessary to ensure efforts are effective and allow for the development of new approaches.[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 7. Alaska's Strategies to Prevent Underage Drinking. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dbh/Documents/Prevention/UnderagedrinkingUpdated.pdf]. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. (accessed 9/15/2015). }}

Evidence-based Practices

The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends evidence-based strategies for reducing excessive alcohol use, including underage and binge drinking. These include increasing alcohol taxes, regulating alcohol outlet density, and having commercial host liability laws. Moreover, given the association between youth exposure to alcohol advertising and underage drinking, monitoring and reducing youth exposure to alcohol advertising through the implementation of "no-buy" lists (i.e., lists of television programming that risk overexposing youth to alcohol advertising based on the industry's self-regulatory alcohol marketing guidelines) might also help reduce underage drinking.^8^ As part of the Healthy Alaskans 2020 health improvement process, groups of Alaska subject matter experts met over a period of months in a rigorous review process to identify and prioritize strategies to address the 25 health priorities. Public health partners around the state are aligning work around these approaches adapted to Alaska's unique needs. '''Strategy 1:''' [[br]]Provide the Prime for Life curriculum for alternative high school students, Job Corps participants, and youth caught with alcohol or any illegal substance. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]The Prime For Life curriculum was developed by the Prevention Research Institute in Kentucky and has been widely tested throughout the United States and in Sweden. Providing practical and useful information, this research-based program leads the student through a process of self-evaluation and reflection upon his or her own personal decisions around alcohol and other drug use. '''Sources:''' [[br]][http://www.primeforlife.org/Programs/PRIME_For_Life_PreventionPrevention Research Institute - PRIME for life] [http://www.voaak.org/Services/Prevention--Intervention/Prime-for-Life Volunteers of America - Alaska PRIME For Life] '''Strategy 2:''' [[br]]Use the Positive Community Norms approach in a media campaign to promote attitude and behavior change around alcohol use among teens and young adults. The campaign will focus on evidence-based environmental prevention strategies to change social norms regarding youth alcohol. This approach maximizes communication, outcomes, and economic use of resources, while reducing duplicate and ineffective approaches. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]Based on several extensively researched theories in psychology and health education, the Positive Community Norms (PCN) framework can be used to improve health and safety by increasing positive norms within communities. '''Sources:''' [[br]][http://www.mostofus.org/about-us/what-is-the-positive-community-norms-framework/ Most of Us: Positive Community Norms Framework] [http://www.mostofus.org/resources/references/ Most of Us: References] '''Strategy 3:''' [[br]]Increase the social and emotion skills in children of all ages through institutionalizing formal learning standards and implementing curricula for social emotional learning. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]Social and emotional learning programs have been implemented in various settings. These programs have been shown to decrease aggression and hostility, increase academic achievement, and improve relationships with peers and adults. '''Sources:''' [[br]][http://www.edutopia.org/sel-research-evidence-based-programs Social and Emotional Learning Research Review: Evidence-Based Programs] [http://www.casel.org/research Social and Emotional Learning Research] A listing of strategies, actions, and key partners on this measure can be found at: [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/Actions-Partners_15_BingeDrinking.pdf].[[br]][[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 8. Ross CS, Brewer RD, Jernigan DH. The potential impact of a "no-buy" list on youth exposure to alcohol advertising on cable television. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2016;77:7-16. [http://www.jsad.com/doi/pdf/10.15288/jsad.2016.77.7] Accessed May 11, 2017. }}

Available Services

NATIONAL: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) National Drug and Treatment Referral Routing Service provides a toll-free telephone number for alcohol and drug information/treatment referral assistance. The number is: 1-800-662-HELP (4357).
Page Content Updated On 05/11/2017, Published on 05/11/2017
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Tue, 20 November 2018 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Thu, 11 May 2017 16:09:49 AKDT
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Tue, 20 November 2018 17:31:26 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Thu, 11 May 2017 16:09:49 AKDT