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State of Alaska

Health Indicator Report of Dating Violence - Adolescents (Grades 9-12) (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 13)

The prevalence of sexual violence and intimate partner violence is a major public health concern in Alaska.^1^ Witnessing or being a victim of domestic violence is associated with high rates of fair-to-poor assessments of general health, asthma diagnoses, current smoking, and lack of emotional support.^2^ Individuals diagnosed with anxiety and/or depression have some of the highest prevalence of sexual and intimate partner violence.^3^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Alaska's Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence Strategic Plan. April 2009. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Documents/HealthPromotion/pubs/RPEplan_6-09.pdf]. 2. Effects of domestic violence on children - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_domestic_violence_on_children]. Accessed 4/22/2016. 3. The Mental Health Effects of Sexual Assault and Abuse. [http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/issues/sexual-abuse]. Accessed 4/22/2016. }}
Starting in 2013, the question was: "During the past 12 months, how many times did someone you were dating hurt you on purpose? (Count such things as being hit, slammed into something, or injured with an object or weapon." with responses from 0 times to 6 or more times.

Notes

** = Data not available

Data Sources

  • [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
  • [https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)], Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC

Data Interpretation Issues

Alaska has conducted a statewide Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 1995 and biennially from 2003. Weighted data were not obtained in 2005 and therefore no statewide estimates are available for that year. A YRBS survey conducted in 1999 did not include the Anchorage School District and therefore was not considered a valid statewide estimate. No YRBS survey was conducted in Alaska in 1997 and 2001. Traditional high schools are sometimes called comprehensive high schools. They are public high schools that are distinct from alternative high schools, which serve students at risk of not graduating, charter schools, correspondence schools, and students enrolled in high school in correctional facilities. Responses are weighted to reflect youth attending public traditional high schools in Alaska. The question on dating violence changed in 2013 to "During the past 12 months, how many times did someone you were dating hurt you on purpose? (Count such things as being hit, slammed into something, or injured with an object or weapon." from "During the past 12 months, did your boyfriend or girlfriend ever hit, slap, or physically hurt you on purpose?" Changes in wording from "boyfriend or girlfriend" to "someone you were dating or going out with"; the description of harm from "ever hit, slapped, or physically hurt" to "hit, slammed into something, or injured with an object or weapon"; changes in response categories from yes or no to number of times; and limitation to those dating or going out rather all students affect the prevalence rates. Responses to the two questions are not equivalent and are presented separately.

Definition

Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded "Yes" on the [http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)] to the question: "Among students who dated or went out with someone during the past 12 months, the percentage who had been physically hurt on purpose by someone they were dating or going out with one or more times during the past 12 months."

Numerator

Weighted number of adolescents (grades 9-12) on the YRBS with responses of "1" to "6 or more times" to the question: "During the past 12 months, how many times did someone you were dating or going out with physically hurt you on purpose? (Count such things as being hit, slammed into something, or injured with an object or weapon.)"

Denominator

Weighted number of adolescents (grades 9-12) on the YRBS who were dating or went out with someone during the past 12 months with complete and valid responses.

Healthy People Objective: (Developmental) Reduce physical violence by current or former intimate partners

U.S. Target: Developmental

Other Objectives

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Leading Health Indicator 13: Reduce the percentage of adolescents (high school students in grades 9-12) who were ever hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend during the past 12 months to 8% by 2020.

How Are We Doing?

In 2015, physical dating violence among adolescents (high school students in grades 9-12) was 9.5% for all Alaska adolescents and 9.8% for Alaska Native adolescents, virtually unchanged from the levels in 2013. Prevalence rates from the YRBS are initially presented for the current definition for physical dating violence by all Alaska adolescents, Alaska Native adolescents, and the mean of the national YRBS. These data are followed by estimates on dating violence from the period of 2003 to 2011 for the same groups. Subsequent analyses display dating violence by demographic subpopulations (i.e., sex, age, race/ethnicity, ethnicity, grade level, and academic achievement) and regions. Questions on adolescent dating violence have been asked on the YRBS since 2003. The question on dating violence changed in 2013 preventing comparisons with earlier time periods.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

In 2015, physical dating violence among all Alaska adolescents (9.5%) and Alaska Native adolescents (9.8%) was not different than the national average of 9.6%.

What Is Being Done?

The Alaska Network on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault has developed "Pathways to Prevent Domestic Violence, A Plan for Alaska 2010-2016" to address domestic violence and teen dating violence.^4^ The Stand Up Speak Up Alaska program promotes 6 steps to healthy relationships: (1) Relationship Basics, (2) Keep Respect Going, (3) Building a Peer Culture, (4) Leading the Way, (5) Respecting Yourself, and (6) Getting Help.^5^ In 2015, the Alaska legislature passed the Alaska Safe Children's Act that requires school districts to provide age-appropriate child sexual assault, teen dating and youth suicide prevention curricula to all students. It includes a provision that mandates teen dating violence education in middle schools and high schools. A task force has until June 2016 to make recommendations to the Department of Education and Early Development on that curricula. Schools have until 2017 to comply with the Alaska Safe Children's Act.[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 4. Prevention Domestic Violence and Teen Dating Violence. Alaska Network on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault website. [http://www.andvsa.org/]. 5. Stand Up Speak Up Alaska. [http://www.standupspeakupalaska.org/]. }}

Evidence-based Practices

As part of the Healthy Alaskans 2020 health improvement process, groups of Alaska subject matter experts met over a period of months in a rigorous review process to identify and prioritize strategies to address the 25 health priorities. Public health partners around the state are aligning work around these approaches adapted to Alaska's unique needs. Below are the strategies identified for enhancing adolescent support systems. '''Strategy 1:''' [[br]]Build community capacity for prevention. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]The standard for community-based dating violence prevention work in Alaska is based on the prevention model developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Working with communities to build their capacity to support the work of prevention is the first step towards building comprehensive programming. Comprehensive programming coordinates strategies across multiple settings and populations within each community. Coordinated programming that includes multiple types of activities across multiple settings and populations is most effective in changing the behaviors, beliefs, and norms that impact the incidence of dating violence. '''Sources:''' [[br]][http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/DELTA/index.html?s_cid=cd_281 Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancement and Leadership Through Alliances (DELTA)] CDC [http://www.cdc.gov/prc/prevention-strategies/index.htm Prevention Strategies] [http://www.andvsa.org/pathways-statewide-prevention/ ANDVSA Pathways Statewide Prevention] Sabol WJ, Coulton CJ, Korbin JE. Building Community Capacity for Violence Prevention. J Interpers Violence. 2004; 19(3): 322-340. Chavis DM. Building community capacity to prevent violence through coalitions and partnerships. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 1995; 6(2): 234-245. '''Strategy 2:*''' [[br]]Promote values and beliefs that reinforce safe and healthy relationships. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]This strategy emerges from the social norms approach where inaccurate perceptions about norms, values, beliefs, and risk and protective factors are corrected to facilitate health promotion and violence prevention. Social norms interventions have been successfully used by other prevention efforts (e.g., obesity prevention, binge drinking, and tobacco cessation). Research is starting to show positive impacts on violence prevention. '''Strategy 3:*''' [[br]]Implement evidence-based school violence prevention programs. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]Schools provide an important setting for dating violence prevention because "they are a setting in which much interpersonal aggression among children occurs and the only setting with almost universal access to children" (Wilson and Lipsey, 2007). This provides schools with a unique opportunity to intervene and to prevent dating violence. Universal or comprehensive approaches, such as the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child model, have been found to be particularly effective. The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child model is an ecological approach that "responds to the call for greater alignment, integration, and collaboration between health and education to improve each child's cognitive, physical, social, and emotional development" (ASCD, 2014). School connectedness is an important protective factor that provides a foundation for effective prevention efforts. * Sources for Strategy 2 and Strategy 3 can be found at [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/EBS/HA2020_EBS13_DatingViolence-Youth.pdf]. A listing of strategies, actions, and key partners on this measure can be found at: [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/Actions-Partners_13_DatingViolence.pdf].
Page Content Updated On 05/11/2017, Published on 05/11/2017
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sun, 15 July 2018 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Thu, 11 May 2017 07:47:47 AKDT
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sun, 15 July 2018 13:21:07 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Thu, 11 May 2017 07:47:47 AKDT