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State of Alaska

Health Indicator Report of Teen Birth Rate

Research indicates that bearing a child during adolescence is associated with long-term difficulties for the mother, her child, and society. These consequences are often attributable to poverty and other adverse socioeconomic circumstances that frequently accompany early childbearing. Teens are more likely than women aged 25-34 years to have preterm birth and low birth weight infants.^1^ These babies are more likely to grow up in homes that offer lower levels of emotional support and cognitive stimulation, and they are less likely to earn a high school diploma. For the mothers, giving birth during adolescence is associated with limited educational attainment, which in turn can reduce future employment prospects and earning potential.^2-3^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Trends in Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing - The Office of Adolescent Health. U.S. Department of Health & Social Services. [http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/adolescent-health-topics/reproductive-health/teen-pregnancy/trends.html]. Updated February 25, 2016. Accessed April 26, 2016. 2. CDC - Teen Pregnancy - Reproductive Health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [http://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/]. Updated December 11, 2015. Accessed April 26, 2016. 3. Adolescent Health. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/wcfh/Pages/adolescent]. Accessed April 26, 2016. }}
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Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Alaska Health Analytics and Vital Records], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services

Data Interpretation Issues

The teen birth rate does not include abortions or miscarriages, and is an underestimate of the teen pregnancy rate. Alaska populations are from the [http://laborstats.alaska.gov/pop/popest.htm Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development, Research and Analysis]. Data reviewed and updated by [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/data/default.aspx Alaska Bureau of Vital Statistics] on 3/25/2016.

Definition

Teen birth rate is reported as the number of live births per 1,000 females ages 15-19.

Numerator

The number of live births to resident females ages 15-19 as reported by the [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/data/default.aspx Alaska Bureau of Vital Statistics].

Denominator

The number of females ages 15-19 in the resident population as reported by the [http://labor.alaska.gov/research/pop/popest.htm Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development].

Healthy People Objective: Reduce the pregnancy rate among adolescent females aged 15 to 17 years

U.S. Target: 36.2 pregnancies per 1,000

Other Objectives

Healthy People Objective FP-8.2: Reduce pregnancies among adolescent females aged 18 to 19 years U.S. Target: 105.9 pregnancies per 1,000

How Are We Doing?

Since 2006, the overall teen mother (15-19) birth rate has declined 28.8 percent, with the black teen mother birth rate seeing the largest decrease.^4^ As the two predominant races in Alaska, births to American Indian/Alaska Native and white teens mothers comprised the majority of teenaged births.^4^ American Indian/Alaska Native teen mother birth rates remain approximately three times higher than white teen mother birth rates. In 2015, the teen birth rate for AI/AN teens was 55 per 1,000 population, compared to 29 per 1,000 for white teens.^4^ The teen birth rate in Alaska decreased from 57.7 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years in 1980 to 28.9 in 2015, a reduction of 49.9%. In addition to the decline in the rates, the absolute number of teen births has been on a decline from the most recent high of 1,122 in 2008 to 662 in 2015. The 662 births to females aged 15-19 represented 5.9% of the total of 11,291 births in 2015. The teen birth rate of 54.5 per 1,000 for Alaska Native women aged 15-19 years of age in 2015 was significantly higher than those of Asian/Pacific Islander (29.3 per 1,000), Black (25.1 per 1,000), and White (18.2 per 1,000) races. Teen births were predominantly (57.3%) to married females aged 15-19 years in 1980. By 2014, over 80% of teen births occurred to unmarried females aged 15-19 years. Females aged 15-19 years in the northern and southwest economic regions had significantly higher teen birth rates than the remainder of the state for the five-year period between 2010-2014. Teen birth rates ranged from 0.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 in Yakutat Borough to 99.7 per 1,000 in the Kusilvak census area for the 5-year period of 2010-2014, with a statewide average of 33.5 per 1,000. In Alaska, the repeat teen birth rate, a second live birth to teen mothers, was 16.5 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years in 2012.^5^ A comparison of teen birth rates in Alaska for 2008 and 2014, reported 82% of teen births occurred among teens who were enrolled in Medicaid, this includes 81% of births to teens aged 18-19 years and 86% of births to teens aged 15-17 years.^6^ [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 4. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Health Analytics and Vital Records Section. Alaska Vital Statistics 2015 Annual Report. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Documents/PDFs/VitalStatistics_Annualreport_2015.pdf]. Accessed February 7, 2017. 5. Newby-Kew AJ, DeLozier DP, Prince CB, Perham-Hester KA, Young MB. Alaska Maternal and Child Health Data Book 2014: Life Course Edition. Anchorage, AK. Maternal and Child Health Epidemiology Unit, Section of Women's, Children's, and Family Health, Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, September 2014. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/wcfh/Documents/mchepi/pubs/databook/MCHDataBook2014toweb.pdf]. Accessed April 27, 2016. 6. Reilly K, Newby-Kew A, Rosier, M. Recent Decline in Teen Birth Rate - Alaska, 2008-2014. State of Alaska Epidemiology Bulletin. 2016;12. May 3, 2016. [http://www.epi.alaska.gov/bulletins/docs/b2016_12.pdf]. Accessed May 3, 2016. }}

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

The Alaska teen birth rate of 28.9 per 1,000 in 2015 is above the national rate of 22.3 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years for the same period. The teen birth in Alaska has been higher than the national average since 2008, although both regions are showing similar declines. In a national comparison of the 50 states and District of Columbia, the US birth rate for females aged 15-19 years was 25.4 for 2013-2014. Alaska with a rate of 29.1, ranked 34th from having the lowest teen birth rate.^7^ The birth rate for white teens in Alaska at 20.5 was higher than the national rate of 18.0 for the group. U.S. county-level teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 199.0. The variation in county-level data reinforces the need to use local data to focus teen pregnancy prevention efforts on communities with the greatest need.[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 7. Romero L, Pazol K, Warner L, et al. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years -- United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:409-414. DOI: [http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6516a1]. }}

What Is Being Done?

The Alaska Adolescent Health Program (AHP) in the Division of Public Health, Section of Women's, Children's, and Family Health works to promote positive youth development and prevent or reduce negative health outcomes. This includes statewide partnerships to efficiently approach the prevention of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection. The AHP staff works to promote healthy relationships and reduce risky behaviors in the lives of adolescents and to encourage family, school and community involvement in the lives of youth through technical assistance, trainings, and resources. For more information about the AHP, please visit: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/wcfh/Pages/adolescent].

Evidence-based Practices

Evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs typically address specific protective factors on the basis of knowledge, skills, beliefs, or attitudes related to teen pregnancy. [[br]]1. Knowledge of sexual issues, HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy (including methods of prevention). [[br]]2. Perception of HIV risk. [[br]]3. Personal values about sex and abstinence. [[br]]4. Attitudes toward condoms (pro and con). [[br]]5. Perception of peer norms and sexual behavior. [[br]]6. Individual ability to refuse sex and to use condoms. [[br]]7. Intent to abstain from sex or limit number of partners. [[br]]8. Communication with parents or other adults about sex, condoms, and contraception. [[br]]9. Individual ability to avoid HIV/STD risk and risk behaviors. [[br]]10. Avoidance of places and situations that might lead to sex. [[br]]11. Intent to use a condom. In addition to evidence-based prevention programs, teens need access to youth-friendly clinical services. Parents and other trusted adults also play an important role in helping teens make healthy choices about relationships, sex, and birth control. Learn about what CDC and other federal agencies are doing to reduce teen pregnancy at [http://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/]. In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) as a first-line contraceptive choice for adolescents who choose not to be abstinent.^8^ The Affordable Care Act (ACA) now requires insurers to cover the full cost of LARCs. Research indicates that income-based Medicaid expansions may be effective in reducing births among teens aged 15-19 years.^9^ In 2015, Alaska expanded Medicaid coverage through the ACA to include family planning services for teens with incomes up to 138% of the federal poverty level. This may lead to further reductions in teen births. '''Recommendations:^6^''' 1. Parents and other caregivers can help by talking with their teens about sex; encouraging teens to delay sexual initiation; encouraging sexually active teens to use effective birth control methods to prevent unwanted pregnancy and to use condoms to prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); and visiting a health care provider with their teen to learn about various types of birth control.^10^ 2. Health care providers can help by improving the quality of reproductive health care, and related preventive health care, for teens by promoting teen-friendly health clinics; encouraging teens to delay sexual initiation; offering effective contraceptive methods, including LARCs, for sexually active teens and discussing the pros and cons of each method; seeking training in LARC insertion and removal; and educating teens about the need to use condoms to prevent STDs, regardless of their chosen method of contraception.^10,11,12^ 3. Teens should be encouraged to talk openly to their parents, caregivers, and health care providers about making healthy choices regarding sexual activity.^1^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont See "Resources and References" for references. }}
Page Content Updated On 04/16/2018, Published on 04/16/2018
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Thu, 13 December 2018 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 10:21:41 AKDT
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Thu, 13 December 2018 17:36:13 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 10:21:41 AKDT