DefinitionPercentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded "Yes" on the [http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)] to the question: "Among students who dated or went out with someone during the past 12 months, the percentage who had been physically hurt on purpose by someone they were dating or going out with one or more times during the past 12 months."
NumeratorWeighted number of adolescents (grades 9-12) who responded on the YRBS with responses of "1" to "6 or more times" to the question: "During the past 12 months, how many times did someone you were dating or going out with physically hurt you on purpose? (Count such things as being hit, slammed into something, or injured with an object or weapon.)"
DenominatorWeighted number of adolescents (grades 9-12) surveyed on the YRBS who were dating or went out with someone during the past 12 months with complete and valid responses.
Data Interpretation IssuesAlaska has conducted a statewide Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 1995 and biennially from 2003. Weighted data were not obtained in 2005 and therefore no statewide estimates are available for that year. A YRBS survey conducted in 1999 did not include the Anchorage School District and therefore was not considered a valid statewide estimate. No YRBS survey was conducted in Alaska in 1997 and 2001.
Traditional high schools are sometimes called comprehensive high schools. They are public high schools that are distinct from alternative high schools, which serve students at risk of not graduating, charter schools, correspondence schools, and students enrolled in high school in correctional facilities.
Responses are weighted to reflect youth attending public traditional high schools in Alaska.
The question on dating violence changed in 2013 to "During the past 12 months, how many times did someone you were dating hurt you on purpose? (Count such things as being hit, slammed into something, or injured with an object or weapon." from "During the past 12 months, did your boyfriend or girlfriend ever hit, slap, or physically hurt you
on purpose?" Changes include: 1) from "boyfriend or girlfriend" to "someone you were dating or going out with"; 2) from "ever hit, slapped, or physically hurt" to "hit, slammed into something, or injured with an object or weapon"; and 3) restricting the denominator to only those students who reported dating or going out with someone. These changes impact prevalence rates and so responses to the two questions are not equivalent and are presented separately.
Why Is This Important?The prevalence of sexual violence and intimate partner violence is a major public health concern in Alaska.^1^ Witnessing or being a victim of domestic violence is associated with high rates of fair-to-poor assessments of general health, asthma diagnoses, current smoking, and lack of emotional support.^2,3^ Individuals diagnosed with anxiety and/or depression have some of the highest prevalence of sexual and intimate partner violence.^4^[[br]]
1. Alaska's Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence Strategic Plan. April 2009. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Documents/HealthPromotion/pubs/RPEplan_6-09.pdf].
2. Ellsberg M, Jansen HA, Heise L, Watts CH, et al. WHO Multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women study team. 2008. Intimate partner violence and women's physical and mental health in the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence: an observational study. Lancet; 371(9619):1165-1172.
3. Campbell JC. Health consequences of intimate partner violence. The Lancet; 359:1331-1336. April 13, 2002. [http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.620.1866&rep=rep1&type=pdf]. Accessed August 24, 2018.
4. The Mental Health Effects of Sexual Assault and Abuse. [http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/issues/sexual-abuse]. Accessed 4/22/2016.
Healthy People Objective: (Developmental) Reduce physical violence by current or former intimate partnersU.S. Target: Developmental
Other ObjectivesHealthy Alaskans 2020 Leading Health Indicator 13: Reduce the percentage of adolescents (high school students in grades 9-12) who were ever hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend during the past 12 months to 8% by 2020.
How Are We Doing?In 2017, physical dating violence among adolescents (high school students in grades 9-12 who were dating or went out with someone during the past 12 months) was 7.3% for all Alaska adolescents and 4.5% for Alaska Native adolescents.
Prevalence rates from the YRBS are initially presented for the current definition for physical dating violence by all Alaska adolescents, Alaska Native adolescents, and the mean of the national YRBS. These data are followed by estimates on dating violence from the period of 2003 to 2011 for the same groups. Subsequent analyses display dating violence by demographic subpopulations (i.e., sex, age, race/ethnicity, ethnicity, grade level, and academic achievement) and regions.
Questions on adolescent dating violence have been asked on the YRBS since 2003. The question on dating violence changed in 2013 preventing comparisons with earlier time periods.
How Do We Compare With the U.S.?In 2017, physical dating violence among all Alaska adolescents was 7.3%. The U.S. physical dating violence among adolescents for 2017 was 8.0%.
What Is Being Done?The [http://www.andvsa.org/ Alaska Network on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault (ANDVSA)] joined a national effort to prevent domestic violence and sexual assault in 2003, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), to build capacity to prevent domestic violence and sexual assault throughout the state. The partnership led to the convening a statewide steering committee (SSC), comprised of state agency and non-profit partners, and development of the [http://www.andvsa.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/yellow-prevention-plan.pdf Pathways to Prevent Domestic Violence Plan]. The plan represents the voices of diverse stakeholders and establishes a framework for prevention efforts to be organized and coordinated at the state and local levels. The plan is currently being revised (2019-2022) and will be finalized by the SSC in the fall of 2018.
While the Pathways Plan for prevention provides the state with a foundation for coordinating prevention work, Alaska's efforts have expanded to include the statewide [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Documents/HealthPromotion/pubs/RPEplan_6-09.pdf Rape Prevention Education (RPE) Plan] which is overseen by the Division of Public Health. The primary prevention indicators outlined in the RPE plan align with the Pathway's Plan, however the RPE has as specific focus on sexual violence prevention.
The Alaska Injury and Violence Prevention Plan is a plan coordinated between state agencies and non-profit partnerships that serves to identify common indicators between intentional and unintentional injuries. The goals in the ASVIP plan reflect current state and partner priorities, including injury and violence leading health indicators from the Healthy Alaskans 2020 process. ASVIP's plan includes domestic violence and sexual assault indicators from HA2020 but extends beyond those indicators to include a broad array of prevention and intervention strategies.
The [https://dps.alaska.gov/CDVSA/Home Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault], housed in the Department of Public Safety, serves as a unifying body with a mission to promote the prevention of domestic violence and sexual assault and provide safety for Alaskans victimized or impacted through a statewide system of crisis intervention and support while demanding perpetrator accountability. CDVSA has administers state resources with funding for evidence based or practice informed strategies which are implemented at state or local levels. Funded projects include strategies for male engagement, youth engagement, evidence based school programming, bystander intervention, cultural connection and strategies that promote equity and wellness.
The [https://dps.alaska.gov/cdvsa/resources/stop-plan Alaska STOP (Services, Training, Officers and Prosecutors) Four Year Implementation Plan, FFY2017-2020] was developed by a committee with participation of federally-recognized tribes, tribal agencies and other state and non-profit programs. The STOP plan is aimed at assuring these groups and representatives of the courts provide victims of domestic violence and/or sexual assault with access to services within the legal system that are trauma informed, and support the recovery needs of the survivor regardless of the legal outcome following the assault.
In 2015, the Alaska legislature passed the [https://education.alaska.gov/schoolhealth/safechildact Alaska Safe Children's Act] that requires school districts to provide age-appropriate child sexual assault, teen dating and youth suicide prevention curricula to all students. It includes a provision that mandates teen dating violence education in middle schools and high schools. A task force made recommendations in 2016 with the Act, which were implemented by the Department of Education and Early Development in the 2017/2018 school year.
Evidence-based PracticesAs part of the Healthy Alaskans 2020 health improvement process, groups of Alaska subject matter experts met over a period of months in a rigorous review process to identify and prioritize strategies to address the 25 health priorities. Public health partners around the state are aligning work around these approaches adapted to Alaska's unique needs. Below are the strategies identified for enhancing adolescent support systems.
[[br]]Build community capacity for prevention.
[[br]]The standard for community-based dating violence prevention work in Alaska is based on the prevention model developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Working with communities to build their capacity to support the work of prevention is the first step towards building comprehensive programming. Comprehensive programming coordinates strategies across multiple settings and populations within each community. Coordinated programming that includes multiple types of activities across multiple settings and populations is most effective in changing the behaviors, beliefs, and norms that impact the incidence of dating violence.
[[br]][http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/DELTA/index.html?s_cid=cd_281 Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancement and Leadership Through Alliances (DELTA)]
CDC [http://www.cdc.gov/prc/prevention-strategies/index.htm Prevention Strategies]
[http://www.andvsa.org/pathways/ ANDVSA Pathways Statewide Prevention]
[https://dps.alaska.gov/CDVSA/Prevention CDVSA Prevention Programming]
Sabol WJ, Coulton CJ, Korbin JE. Building Community Capacity for Violence Prevention. J Interpers Violence. 2004; 19(3): 322-340.
Chavis DM. Building community capacity to prevent violence through coalitions and partnerships. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 1995; 6(2): 234-245.
[[br]]Promote values and beliefs that reinforce safe and healthy relationships.
[[br]]This strategy emerges from the social norms approach where inaccurate perceptions about norms, values, beliefs, and risk and protective factors are corrected to facilitate health promotion and violence prevention. Social norms interventions have been successfully used by other prevention efforts (e.g., obesity prevention, binge drinking, and tobacco cessation). Research is starting to show positive impacts on violence prevention.
[[br]]Implement evidence-based school violence prevention programs.
[[br]]Schools provide an important setting for dating violence prevention because "they are a setting in which much interpersonal aggression among children occurs and the only setting with almost universal access to children" (Wilson and Lipsey, 2007). This provides schools with a unique opportunity to intervene and to prevent dating violence. Universal or comprehensive approaches, such as the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child model, have been found to be particularly effective. The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child model is an ecological approach that "responds to the call for greater alignment, integration, and collaboration between health and education to improve each child's cognitive, physical, social, and emotional development" (ASCD, 2014). School connectedness is an important protective factor that provides a foundation for effective prevention efforts.
* Sources for Strategy 2 and Strategy 3 can be found at [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/EBS/HA2020_EBS13_DatingViolence-Youth.pdf].
A listing of strategies, actions, and key partners on this measure can be found at: [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/Actions-Partners_13_DatingViolence.pdf].