Skip directly to searchSkip directly to the site navigationSkip directly to the page's main content
Skip directly to searchSkip directly to the site navigationSkip directly to this page's context menuSkip directly to the page's main content
State of Alaska

Complete Health Indicator Report of Adverse Childhood Experiences: Parents were Separated or Divorced

Definition

Percentage of adults 18 years of age and older who responded "Yes" on the [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)] to the question: "Were your parents separated or divorced?"

Numerator

Weighted number of adults (18+) who responded "Yes" on the BRFSS to the question: "Were your parents separated or divorced?"

Denominator

Weighted number of adults (18+) who responded to the separation or divorce question on the BRFSS, excluding those with missing or "Refused" responses. Those who responded "Don't know/Not Sure" are defined as a negative response.

Data Interpretation Issues

The preamble to each of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) question was: "I'd like to ask you some questions about events that happened during your childhood. This information will allow us to better understand problems that may occur early in life, and may help others in the future. This is a sensitive topic and some people may feel uncomfortable with these questions. At the end of this section, I will give you a phone number for an organization that can provide information and referral for these issues. Please keep in mind that you can ask me to skip any question you do not want to answer. All questions refer to the time period before you were 18 years of age. Now, looking back before you were 18 years of age ---" While the individual adverse childhood experience (ACE) an Alaska adult may have experienced is important, the strength of the research lies in the often multiple ACEs an individual has during childhood: "The ACE score, a total sum of the different categories of ACEs reported by participants, is used to assess cumulative childhood stress. Study findings repeatedly reveal a graded dose-response relationship between ACEs and negative health and well-being outcomes across the life course...Dose response describes the changes in an outcome (e.g., alcoholism) associated with differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (e.g., ACEs). A graded dose-response means that as the dose of the stressor increases the intensity of the outcome also increases."^1^ The ACEs question on parents separated or divorced was asked from 2013 through 2015.[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. [http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/acestudy/index.html]. Updated April 1, 2016. Accessed April 26, 2016.}}

Why Is This Important?

Divorce rates rose a dramatic 79% in the United States between 1970 and 1977. Although these high rates have since declined, a high proportion of marriages still end in divorce. Two-fifths of children will experience the divorce of their parents before they reach age 18. Divorce and separation can cause dramatic changes, bringing stress into a child's life. It can strain parent-child relationships, lead to lost contact with one parent, create economic hardships, and increase conflict between parents. The impacts of overwhelming stress on the brain continue into adulthood and can have generational impacts. As Alaska children experience parental separation or divorce, they may find negative ways to cope with their damaged stress responses. As adults if they start families of their own, these abnormal behaviors become Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) for another generation.^2^ A study on the long-term effects of divorce on children found that a significant number of the young adults in the study appeared burdened by vivid memories of the marital break-up, by feelings of sadness, continuing resentment towards parents, and a sense of deprivation.^3^ The relationships of adults whose parents' marriages failed do tend to be somewhat more problematic than those of children from stable homes. For instance, people whose parents split when they were young experience more difficulty forming and sustaining intimate relationships as young adults, greater dissatisfaction with their marriages, a higher divorce rate, and poorer relationships with the noncustodial father compared with adults from sustained marriages.^4^ The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study, a collaborative between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Kaiser Permanente's Health Appraisal Clinic in San Diego, assessed associations between childhood maltreatment and later-life health and well-being.^1^ It is critical to understand how some of the worst health and social problems can arise as a consequence of adverse childhood experiences. Sixteen of the [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/ Healthy Alaskans 2020] measures have been shown through peer-reviewed journal articles to be negatively impacted by adverse childhood experiences. Alaska takes on the burden of approximately $82 million costs (e.g., health care costs, welfare costs, special education costs) each year due to nonfatal child maltreatment. Realizing these connections is likely to improve efforts towards prevention and recovery. ^5^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. [http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/acestudy/index.html]. Updated April 1, 2016. Accessed April 26, 2016. 2. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Alaska Mental Health Board and the Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse. Investing in prevention: working together in early childhood for healthy Alaskan children, families, and communities 2015. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/abada/ace-ak/Documents/State_Interagency_Prevention_2015.pdf]. Accessed April 26, 2016. 3. Matthews DW. Long-term effects of divorce on children. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. [https://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/pdfs/fcs482.pdf]. Accessed April 26, 2016. 4. Arkowitz H, Lilienfeld SO. Is divorce bad for children? Scientific American. [http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-divorce-bad-for-children/]. Published March 1, 2013. Accessed April 26, 2016. 5. Sidmore P. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Alaska Mental Health Board and the Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse. Economic costs of adverse childhood experiences in Alaska. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/abada/aceak/ Documents/ACEsEconomicCosts-AK.pdf]. Accessed April 26, 2016. }}

How Are We Doing?

Alaska adults reported that 31.6% had experienced their parents separating or divorcing. Those adults who were college graduates reported a significantly lower rate of separation or divorce at 23.5% than those who had less than a high school education at 39.1%. There was also a significant difference among adults with different incomes - those making less than $15,000 reported 36.9%, while those making more than $75,000 reported 28.1% had experienced separation or divorce. There were no significant differences among races or ethnicities. Rates of parents separated or divorced during childhood from the BRFSS are initially presented for all Alaskans and Alaska Native people for the combined 3-year period from 2013-2015. Subsequent analyses were conducted for demographic subpopulations (i.e., sex, age, race/ethnicity, ethnicity, marital status, education, employment status, income, and poverty status). Crosstabulations were also conducted for 3-year averages by body mass index, current smoking, sexual orientation, and disability. Significant differences were evident in contrasts by current smoking and sexual orientation. Rates of parents separated or divorced during childhood by regions of Alaska are presented for all Alaskans and Alaska Native people for the 3-year average of surveys conducted between 2013-2015: 1) 7 Alaska Public Health Regions, 2) 5 Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistics Areas and rural remainder, 3) 10 behavioral health assessment regions based upon aggregations of 20,000 population, 4) 29 boroughs and census areas, and 5) 12 tribal health organization regions.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

There are no national statistics on ACEs available; however, in 2009 the CDC released a study comparing ACEs data from five states (i.e., Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, New Mexico, Washington) that used the BRFSS ACEs module. When compared to the five states, Alaska reported the highest rate of separation or divorce.^6^ Compared to rate of adults from the 10 states (i.e., Hawaii, Maine, Nebraska, Nevada, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin) that implemented the ACEs module in 2010, the rate of Alaskan adults reporting they had experienced their parents separating or divorcing during their childhood was higher.^1^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. [http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/acestudy/index.html]. Updated April 1, 2016. Accessed April 26, 2016. 6. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Adverse childhood experiences reported by adults - five states, 2009. MMWR 2010;59(49):1609-13. [https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm5949.pdf] Accessed October 31, 2017. }}

What Is Being Done?

Alaska has many groups working on preventing childhood trauma and easing the effects of damage already done. Here are a few examples (as of early 2015):^7^ Statewide, teachers and public health nurses provide teens with information on healthy relationships and life skills. They have partnered with the Alaska departments of Health and Social Services and Education and Early Development, the [http://www.dps.alaska.gov/cdvsa/ Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault], and the [http://www.andvsa.org/ Alaska Network on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault] on an evidenced-based curriculum for the 7th-9th grade called [https://education.alaska.gov/tls/schoolhealth/fourth.html "the Fourth R for Healthy Relationships."] The Division of Public Health partnered with the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium and the [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/chronic/pages/injuryprevention/akfvpp/default.aspx Alaska Family Violence Prevention Project] to develop a teen safety card, a gender-neutral resource developed for Alaska teens with guidance from Alaska teens. The card provides information about healthy and unhealthy relationship characteristics, what consent looks and sounds like, and where to get help, if needed. Another safety card was designed specifically for women.^8^ The Division of Behavioral Health has promoted trauma-informed care for several years. Efforts include development of "Trauma 101" and "Trauma 201" curriculum for behavioral health providers, used around the state. [http://tundrapeace.org/programs/taav/ Teens Acting Against Violence (TAAV)] is a violence-prevention and youth empowerment program at the [http://tundrapeace.org/ Tundra Women's Coalition] for teenagers living in Bethel. Participation is voluntary and open for any interested teens age 12-18.^9^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 7. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Alaska Mental Health Board and the Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse. Adverse childhood experiences - overcoming ACEs in Alaska. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/abada/aceak/ Documents/ACEsReportAlaska.pdf]. Published January 2015. Accessed April 26, 2016. 8. Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium. Getting together - teen relationship safety card. [http://www.anthctoday.org/epicenter/healthyfamilies/teenCard_111014.pdf]. Accessed April 26, 2016. 9. Teens Acting Against Violence. Tundra Women's Coalition - Crisis Line - 1-800-478-7799 or 907-543-3456 website. [http://tundrapeace.org/programs/taav/]. Accessed April 26, 2016. }}

Evidence-based Practices

Recovering from trauma is a challenging process. Building resiliency and having a supportive adult in your life can help with recovery. Positive experiences - such as exposure to environments rich in a range of developmentally appropriate opportunities for social play and exploration - can compensate for and even reverse the negative consequences of stress Efforts during childhood are essential because over time, some stress-induced detriments are increasingly resistant to reversal. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is an evidence-based treatment approach shown to help children, adolescents, and their caregivers overcome trauma-related difficulties. It is designed to reduce negative emotional and behavioral responses following traumatic events. The treatment - based on learning and cognitive theories - addresses distorted beliefs and attributions related to the abuse and provides a supportive environment in which children are encouraged to talk about their traumatic experience. TF-CBT also helps parents who were not abusive to cope effectively with their own emotional distress and develop skills that support their children.^10^ ACEs are best addressed through a coordinated effort to implement prevention programs across multiple settings and populations. Research indicates the majority of health and social challenges are interconnected and often share the same root causes. The following steps need to be taken to address these root causes: 1. Support quality early childhood programs. 2. Ensure access to health care including behavioral health care. 3. Strengthen capacity for social emotional learning throughout Alaska's schools. 4. Maintain and expand prevention efforts that have proven to be effective.^2^ The [http://www.cssp.org/ Center for the Study of Social Policy] spent two years researching and identifying five protective factors that prevent child abuse and neglect. These are: parental resilience, social connections, concrete support in times of need, knowledge of parenting and child development, and social and emotional competence of children. Research studies support the common-sense notion that when these protective factors are well established in a family, the likelihood of child abuse and neglect diminishes. Research shows that these protective factors are also "promotive" factors that build family strengths and a family environment that promotes optimal child and youth development.^11^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 2. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Alaska Mental Health Board and the Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse. Investing in prevention: working together in early childhood for healthy Alaskan children, families, and communities 2015. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/abada/ace-ak/Documents/State_Interagency_Prevention_2015.pdf]. Accessed April 26, 2016. 10. Child Welfare Information Gateway. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children affected by sexual abuse or trauma. [https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/trauma.pdf]. Accessed April 26, 2016. 11. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Office of Children's Services. Strengthening families. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/ocs/Pages/families/default.aspx]. Accessed April 26, 2016. }}


Related Indicators

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 2
All Alaskans31.6%30.2%33.0%2,05811,228
Alaska Native people34.9%31.6%38.2%5951,946

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by sex, all Alaskans, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 2
Males31.6%29.8%33.6%1,4065,091
Females31.5%29.6%33.6%1,6526,137

Data Notes

The sex of the respondent is only asked if necessary.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by age, all Alaskans, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 5
18-2436.7%32.0%41.7%253675
25-3440.1%36.5%43.9%5251,409
35-4439.4%35.8%43.0%5971,654
45-6426.6%24.8%28.5%1,2224,914
65+18.8%16.7%21.1%4412,483

Data Notes

Respondents are asked, "What is your age?, which is coded in years. Responses of Refused are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by race/ethnicity, all Alaskans, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 7
Alaska Native (any mention)34.9%31.6%38.2%5951,948
Asian (non-Hispanic)35.7%26.7%45.8%50207
Black (non-Hispanic)39.6%30.2%49.9%59145
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic)29.3%16.7%46.2%1657
White (non-Hispanic)29.8%28.4%31.3%2,1828,324
Multiracial/Other (non-Hisp.)53.2%36.9%68.8%2768
Hispanic (alone or multi)36.4%28.6%45.0%86280

Data Notes

Race/ethnicity is determined by responses to three questions: [[br]] 1) "Are you Hispanic, Latino/a, or Spanish origin?" "If yes, are you...?" One or more categories may be selected from categories of (1) "Mexican, Mexican American, Chicano/a"; (2) "Puerto Rican"; (3) "Cuban"; (4) "Another Hispanic, Latino/a, or Spanish origin".[[br]] 2) "Which one or more of the following would you say is your race?" Response categories consist of "White", "Black or African American", "American Indian or Alaska Native", "Asian" (with subcategories of Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, or Other Asian), "Pacific Islander" (with subcategories of Native Hawaiian, Guamanian or Chamorro, Samoan, or Other Pacific Islander), Other, or No additional choices. [[br]] 3) If more than one response to race, then "Which one of these groups would you say best represents your race?" with choices from the list enumerated above. Responses of Don't Know/Not Sure or Refused are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by ethnicity, all Alaskans, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 2
Hispanic/Latino37.7%30.3%45.7%106323
Non-Hispanic/Latino31.2%29.8%32.6%2,91210,773

Data Notes

Ethnicity is defined independent of race. It is based upon responses to the question, "Are you Hispanic, Latino/a, or Spanish origin?" Responses of "Don't Know/Not Sure" or "Refused" are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by marital status, all Alaskans, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 5
Married27.6%26.0%29.3%1,5566,170
Widowed20.7%17.2%24.7%177897
Divorced/Separated32.8%29.5%36.3%5621,866
Never Married40.0%36.4%43.6%5811,753
Living with a Partner39.8%33.4%46.6%169463

Data Notes

Marital status is determined by the question, "Are you ...?" with responses of "Married", 'Divorced", "Widowed", "Separated", "Never married," or "A member of an unmarried couple". Responses of "Refused" are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by education, all Alaskans, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 4
Less than High School39.1%33.0%45.6%188534
High School Graduate or GED33.1%30.4%36.0%8102,623
Some College or Tech. School32.8%30.4%35.3%8903,097
College Graduate23.5%21.6%25.5%9054,236

Data Notes

Education is based upon education completed by or after 25 years of age. Individuals less than 25 years of age are excluded. Education is assessed by responses to the question: "What is the highest grade or year of school you completed?" Responses are "Never attended school or only attended kindergarten", "Grades 1 through 8 (Elementary)", "Grades 9 through 11 (Some high school)", "Grade 12 (High School Graduate)", "College 1 year to 3 years (Some college or technical school)", "College 4 years or more (College graduate)", or "Refused". Refusals are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by employment status, all Alaskans, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 4
Employed32.4%30.6%34.2%1,8976,653
Unemployed40.9%35.6%46.5%248719
Not in Work Force26.2%23.7%28.8%7033,206
Unable to Work36.1%29.9%42.9%185550

Data Notes

Employment status is assessed by the question: "Are you currently ...?" with responses of "Employed for wages", "Self-employed", "Out of work for 1 year or more", "Out of work for less than 1 year", "A Homemaker", "A Student", "Retired", "Unable to work" or "Refused". Refusals are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by income, all Alaskans, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 5
<$15,00036.9%31.7%42.5%264873
$15,000-$24,99941.2%36.5%46.0%3961,218
$25,000-$49,00033.4%30.3%36.7%5982,145
$50,000-$74,00031.4%28.3%34.8%4631,770
$75,000+28.1%26.1%30.2%1,1074,236

Data Notes

Income is measure by the question: "Is your annual household income from all sources ---" with categories of "Less than $10,000", "Less than $15,000", "less than $20,000", "less than $25,000", "less than $35,000", "less than $50,000", "less than $75,000", "$75,000 or more", and "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused". Responses of "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused" are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by poverty threshold, all Alaskans, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Poverty thresholds are intended for use as a statistical yardstick, not as a complete description of what people and families need to live. Poverty thresholds are the dollar amounts assigned by the U.S. Census Bureau to determine poverty status. Poverty thresholds are assigned based upon the size of the family and the ages of the members (i.e., adults versus children). The same thresholds are used throughout the United States. Poverty thresholds were originally derived in the 1963-1964 using U.S. Department of Agriculture food budgets designed for families under economic stress and data about what proportion of their income families spent on food. The thresholds are updated annually for inflation using the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U). How the Census Bureau Measures Poverty - U.S. Census Bureau [https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/about/overview/measure.html]
Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 3
Poor34.0%28.6%39.8%219752
Near Poor36.4%32.6%40.5%4431,372
Middle/High29.8%28.3%31.4%1,8697,207

Data Notes

Poverty thresholds computed using the BRFSS assume that householders are less than 65 years of age as the ages of the household heads are not recorded. The maximum of the income range provided for the household is used to evaluate the proportion of the poverty threshold. This is a conservative approach as there are no errors of misclassification into the lowest poverty group. The category of Poor represents less than 100% of the poverty threshold. Near Poor is 100% through 199% of the poverty threshold. Middle/High income families are 200% or higher of the poverty threshold. How the Census Bureau Measures Poverty - U.S. Census Bureau [https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/about/overview/measure.html]

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by body mass index, all Alaskans, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Weight CategoryPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 3
Neither Overweight nor Obese32.0%29.5%34.5%9423,548
Overweight30.1%27.8%32.4%1,0453,973
Obese33.4%30.9%36.0%9493,258

Data Notes

Body Mass Index (BMI) is computed based upon responses to the questions, "About how much do you weight without shoes?" and "About how tall are you without shoes?" Responses of "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused" to either questions are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by current smoking, all Alaskans, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 2
Not current smoker29.2%27.7%30.7%2,3219,130
Current smoker41.0%37.7%44.4%7222,036

Data Notes

Current smoking is assessed using two questions: "Have you smoked at least 100 cigarettes in your entire life?" and, if "Yes", "Do you now smoke cigarettes every day, some days, or not at all?" Current smokers are defined as those who have smoked at least 100 cigarettes and who now smoke every day or some days. Non-current smokers are those who have either never smoke 100 cigarettes or whom now smoke cigarettes not at all. Responses of "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused" to either question are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by sexual orientation, all Alaskans, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 2
Heterosexual31.3%29.9%32.7%2,86110,535
Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual49.7%41.9%57.5%121314

Data Notes

Sexual orientation is assessed by the question: "Now I'm going to ask you a question about sexual orientation. Do you think of yourself as A. Gay or lesbian, B. Straight, that is, not lesbian or gay, C. Bisexual, or D. something else?" Responses of "Straight, that is not lesbian or gay" are contrasted with the combined responses to "Gay or lesbian" and "Bisexual". Responses of "Something else", "Don't Know / Not sure", or "Refused" are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by disability, all Alaskans, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 2
Disability Present35.0%31.5%38.6%6092,004
Disability Absent30.9%29.4%32.4%2,4189,085

Data Notes

Disability is assessed using responses from 5 questions: 1) "Are you blind or do you have serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing glasses?"; 2) Because of physical, mental, or emotional condition, do you have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?"; 3) "Do you have a serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?"; 4) "Do you have difficulty dressing or bathing?"; and 5) "Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, do you have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping?" A "Yes" response to one or more of the questions when all questions have valid answers is used to classify the respondent as having a disability. Responses of "No" to all 5 questions denotes the absence of a disability. Responses of "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused" to one or more questions result in the survey being excluded from analysis on disability status.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by Alaska Public Health Regions, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 14
All AlaskansAnchorage32.1%29.4%34.9%6402,226
All AlaskansGulf Coast32.8%29.9%35.7%5141,709
All AlaskansInterior32.1%29.3%35.0%5922,351
All AlaskansMat-Su33.8%30.6%37.2%4841,651
All AlaskansNorthern24.3%19.5%29.9%117478
All AlaskansSoutheast29.1%26.3%32.1%4531,704
All AlaskansSouthwest26.5%22.3%31.2%2581,109
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage42.3%34.1%50.9%86218
Alaska Native peopleGulf Coast45.4%36.3%54.7%73167
Alaska Native peopleInterior37.5%30.3%45.2%95308
Alaska Native peopleMat-Su35.4%23.9%48.9%49141
Alaska Native peopleNorthern24.2%18.2%31.3%68274
Alaska Native peopleSoutheast39.3%31.9%47.1%87241
Alaska Native peopleSouthwest23.0%18.5%28.2%137599

Data Notes

Geographic descriptions of the public health regions can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_phr.aspx].

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 10
All AlaskansAnchorage MSA32.5%30.4%34.8%1,1243,877
All AlaskansFairbanks North Star MSA32.9%29.8%36.1%4531,719
All AlaskansJuneau MicroSA30.0%25.4%34.9%186734
All AlaskansKetchikan Gateway MicroSA28.9%23.1%35.5%93305
All AlaskansRural (non-Metro/MicroSA)29.5%27.6%31.4%1,2024,593
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage MSA40.0%33.1%47.3%135359
Alaska Native peopleFairbanks North Star MSA45.6%35.7%55.8%57145
Alaska Native peopleJuneau MicroSA37.1%25.1%50.9%2674
Alaska Native peopleKetchikan Gateway MicroSA**43
Alaska Native peopleRural (non-Metro/MicroSA)28.8%25.5%32.3%3601,327

Data Notes

** = Data not available due to fewer than 50 respondents in the denominator. Geographic descriptions of the metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_mmsa.aspx].

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by behavioral health areas, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 20
All AlaskansAnchorage Muncipality32.1%29.4%34.9%6402,226
All AlaskansFairbanks North Star Borough32.8%29.8%36.0%4551,726
All AlaskansCity and Borough of Juneau30.0%25.4%34.9%186734
All AlaskansKenai Peninsula Borough34.3%30.8%37.8%3711,213
All AlaskansMatanuska-Susitna Borough33.8%30.6%37.2%4841,651
All AlaskansNorthwest Region24.3%19.5%29.9%117478
All AlaskansOther Interior Region29.4%24.9%34.4%213876
All AlaskansY-K Delta Region21.2%16.3%27.0%97502
All AlaskansSouthwest Region30.1%25.1%35.5%228852
All AlaskansOther Southeast Region28.4%24.9%32.0%267970
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage Muncipality42.3%34.1%50.9%86218
Alaska Native peopleFairbanks North Star Borough46.2%36.4%56.3%58146
Alaska Native peopleCity and Borough of Juneau37.1%25.1%50.9%2674
Alaska Native peopleKenai Peninsula Borough48.2%37.1%59.6%46100
Alaska Native peopleMatanuska-Susitna Borough35.4%23.9%48.9%49141
Alaska Native peopleNorthwest Region24.2%18.2%31.3%68274
Alaska Native peopleOther Interior Region30.5%22.2%40.2%53192
Alaska Native peopleY-K Delta Region17.5%12.6%23.7%57324
Alaska Native peopleSouthwest Region31.5%24.0%40.2%91312
Alaska Native peopleOther Southeast Region40.2%31.3%49.9%61167

Data Notes

Geographic descriptions of the behavioral health systems assessment reporting regions can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_bhs.aspx].

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by boroughs and census areas, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 58
All AlaskansAleutians East Borough33.0%18.4%51.7%2391
All AlaskansAleutians West CA35.8%22.3%52.0%42150
All AlaskansAnchorage Municipality32.1%29.4%34.9%6402,226
All AlaskansBethel CA24.3%18.2%31.6%79374
All AlaskansBristol Bay Borough36.6%22.2%54.0%2384
All AlaskansDenali Borough26.9%14.8%44.0%1698
All AlaskansDillingham CA27.8%19.2%38.6%50190
All AlaskansFairbanks North Star Borough32.8%29.8%36.0%4551,726
All AlaskansHaines Borough30.6%19.4%44.6%2190
All AlaskansHoonah-Angoon CA25.5%14.2%41.6%1457
All AlaskansJuneau City and Borough30.0%25.4%34.9%186734
All AlaskansKenai Peninsula Borough34.3%30.8%37.8%3711,213
All AlaskansKetchikan Gateway Borough28.9%23.1%35.5%93305
All AlaskansKodiak Island Borough28.0%20.9%36.3%67245
All AlaskansKusilvak CA14.2%7.8%24.3%18128
All AlaskansLake and Peninsula Borough26.4%12.7%46.7%2392
All AlaskansMatanuska-Susitna Borough33.8%30.6%37.2%4841,651
All AlaskansNome CA23.1%16.1%32.1%45212
All AlaskansNorth Slope Borough23.8%15.4%35.0%33123
All AlaskansNorthwest Arctic Borough26.4%18.0%37.0%39143
All AlaskansPetersburg Borough26.3%16.9%38.3%2096
All AlaskansPrince of Wales-Hyder CA25.7%17.1%36.8%32128
All AlaskansSitka City and Borough29.9%22.7%38.3%62206
All AlaskansSkagway Municipality**20
All AlaskansSoutheast Fairbanks CA30.4%21.2%41.4%73289
All AlaskansValdez-Cordova CA30.8%24.2%38.4%76251
All AlaskansWrangell City and Borough**46
All AlaskansYakutat City and Borough**22
All AlaskansYukon-Koyukuk CA27.0%19.3%36.3%48238
Alaska Native peopleAleutians East Borough**46
Alaska Native peopleAleutians West CA**46
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage Municipality42.3%34.1%50.9%86218
Alaska Native peopleBethel CA19.6%13.4%27.9%42214
Alaska Native peopleBristol Bay Borough**35
Alaska Native peopleDenali Borough**3
Alaska Native peopleDillingham CA34.8%22.3%49.7%3598
Alaska Native peopleFairbanks North Star Borough46.2%36.4%56.3%58146
Alaska Native peopleHaines Borough**12
Alaska Native peopleHoonah-Angoon CA**15
Alaska Native peopleJuneau City and Borough37.1%25.1%50.9%2674
Alaska Native peopleKenai Peninsula Borough48.2%37.1%59.6%46100
Alaska Native peopleKetchikan Gateway Borough**43
Alaska Native peopleKodiak Island Borough**37
Alaska Native peopleKusilvak CA13.6%7.1%24.5%15110
Alaska Native peopleLake and Peninsula Borough30.2%16.7%48.4%1250
Alaska Native peopleMatanuska-Susitna Borough35.4%23.9%48.9%49141
Alaska Native peopleNome CA19.1%11.4%30.0%23118
Alaska Native peopleNorth Slope Borough24.0%13.0%40.0%1661
Alaska Native peopleNorthwest Arctic Borough29.5%19.3%42.3%2995
Alaska Native peoplePetersburg Borough**9
Alaska Native peoplePrince of Wales-Hyder CA**39
Alaska Native peopleSitka City and Borough**29
Alaska Native peopleSkagway Municipality**1
Alaska Native peopleSoutheast Fairbanks CA**36
Alaska Native peopleValdez-Cordova CA**30
Alaska Native peopleWrangell City and Borough**9
Alaska Native peopleYakutat City and Borough**10
Alaska Native peopleYukon-Koyukuk CA23.8%14.2%37.1%24123

Data Notes

** = Data not available due to fewer than 50 respondents in the denominator. Geographic descriptions of boroughs and census areas can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_bca.aspx].

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) who experienced separated or divorced parents, crude rate, by tribal health regions, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2013-2015 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 24
All AlaskansAleutians and Pribilofs34.8%24.2%47.2%65241
All AlaskansAnchorage/Mat-Su32.5%30.4%34.8%1,1243,877
All AlaskansArctic Slope24.3%15.5%35.9%31112
All AlaskansBristol Bay28.5%21.4%36.9%98372
All AlaskansCopper R/Prince William Snd.29.9%23.5%37.3%76261
All AlaskansInterior32.2%29.4%35.1%5912,335
All AlaskansKenai Peninsula34.3%30.8%37.8%3711,213
All AlaskansKodiak Area28.0%20.9%36.3%67245
All AlaskansNorthwest Arctic25.9%17.8%36.2%41152
All AlaskansNorton Sound23.1%16.1%32.1%45212
All AlaskansSoutheast29.1%26.3%32.1%4531,704
All AlaskansYukon-Kuskokwim21.2%16.4%27.1%96504
Alaska Native peopleAleutians and Pribilofs26.9%14.2%44.9%2492
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage/Mat-Su40.0%33.1%47.3%135359
Alaska Native peopleArctic Slope25.1%13.4%42.0%1553
Alaska Native peopleBristol Bay34.3%24.7%45.3%57187
Alaska Native peopleCopper R/Prince William Snd.**32
Alaska Native peopleInterior38.0%30.8%45.8%94301
Alaska Native peopleKenai Peninsula48.2%37.1%59.6%46100
Alaska Native peopleKodiak Area**37
Alaska Native peopleNorthwest Arctic28.8%18.9%41.2%30102
Alaska Native peopleNorton Sound19.1%11.4%30.0%23118
Alaska Native peopleSoutheast39.3%31.9%47.1%87241
Alaska Native peopleYukon-Kuskokwim17.5%12.6%23.7%57326

Data Notes

Geographic descriptions of the tribal health organization regions can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_thr.aspx].

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

References and Community Resources

'''References:''' 1. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. [http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/acestudy/index.html]. Updated April 1, 2016. Accessed April 26, 2016. 2. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Alaska Mental Health Board and the Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse. Investing in prevention: working together in early childhood for healthy Alaskan children, families, and communities 2015. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/abada/ace-ak/Documents/State_Interagency_Prevention_2015.pdf]. Accessed April 26, 2016. 3. Matthews DW. Long-term effects of divorce on children. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. [https://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/pdfs/fcs482.pdf]. Accessed April 26, 2016. 4. Arkowitz H, Lilienfeld SO. Is divorce bad for children? Scientific American. [http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-divorce-bad-for-children/]. Published March 1, 2013. Accessed April 26, 2016. 5. Sidmore P. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Alaska Mental Health Board and the Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse. Economic costs of adverse childhood experiences in Alaska. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/abada/aceak/ Documents/ACEsEconomicCosts-AK.pdf]. Accessed April 26, 2016. 6. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Adverse childhood experiences reported by adults - five states, 2009. MMWR 2010;59(49):1609-13. [https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm5949.pdf] Accessed October 31, 2017. 7. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Alaska Mental Health Board and the Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse. Adverse childhood experiences - overcoming ACEs in Alaska. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/abada/aceak/ Documents/ACEsReportAlaska.pdf]. Published January 2015. Accessed April 26, 2016. 8. Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium. Getting together - teen relationship safety card. [http://www.anthctoday.org/epicenter/healthyfamilies/teenCard_111014.pdf]. Accessed April 26, 2016. 9. Teens Acting Against Violence. Tundra Women's Coalition - Crisis Line - 1-800-478-7799 or 907-543-3456 website. [http://tundrapeace.org/programs/taav/]. Accessed April 26, 2016. 10. Child Welfare Information Gateway. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children affected by sexual abuse or trauma. [https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/trauma.pdf]. Accessed April 26, 2016. 11. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Office of Children's Services. Strengthening families. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/ocs/Pages/families/default.aspx]. Accessed April 26, 2016.

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Alaska health promotion resources may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

AK-IBIS Web Citation

Use and reproduction of the information published on this website are encouraged and may be done without permission. The following citation should accompany information from this website whenever it is used, reproduced, or published:

AK-IBIS Indicator Citation:
"[Indicator name]. Retrieved on [insert date] from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Example:
Diabetes Prevalence. Retrieved on March 25, 2016, from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Page Content Updated On 10/31/2017, Published on 10/31/2017
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Fri, 19 April 2019 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 10:21:18 AKDT
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Fri, 19 April 2019 18:40:50 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 10:21:18 AKDT