Skip directly to searchSkip directly to the site navigationSkip directly to the page's main content
Skip directly to searchSkip directly to the site navigationSkip directly to this page's context menuSkip directly to the page's main content
State of Alaska

Complete Health Indicator Report of Very Low Birth Weight Infants

Definition

Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are those weighing less than 1,500 grams (3 lbs 5 oz) at birth, regardless of gestational age. The very low birth weight rate is the number of live born infants who weigh less than 1,500 grams, divided by the total of live births over the same time period.

Numerator

Number of live born infants weighing under 1,500 grams in the resident population for a specific time period.

Denominator

Total number of live births in the resident population for a specific time period.

Why Is This Important?

Low birth weight is an important factor affecting neonatal mortality, and a significant determinant of postneonatal mortality. The two main reasons a baby may be born with very low birth weight are premature birth (birth before 37 weeks of pregnancy, and often less than 30 weeks) and fetal growth restriction, usually due to problems with placenta, maternal health, or to birth defects. Clinical problems associated with very low birth weight include: hypothermia, hypoglycemia, hypoxia, respiratory problems, fluid imbalance, hyperbilirubinemia, anemia, and impaired nutrition. ^1^ Compared to infants of a normal weight, low birth weight infants are at increased risk of infection, impaired immune function, delayed motor and social development, learning disabilities, and poor school performance.^2^ [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. UCSF Children's Hospital. Intensive Care Nursery House Staff Manual. Very low and extremely low birthweight infants. [https://www.ucsfbenioffchildrens.org/pdf/manuals/20_VLBW_ELBW.pdf]. Published 2004 Accessed November 2, 2018. 2. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Reproductive and birth outcomes: low birth weight.[https://ephtracking.cdc.gov/showRbLBWGrowthRetardationEnv.action]. Accessed November 2, 2018. }}

Healthy People Objective: Very low birth weight (VLBW)

U.S. Target: 1.4 percent

Other Objectives

Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant to States Program: National Outcome Measure 4.1 - Percent of low birth weight deliveries For more information: [https://mchb.tvisdata.hrsa.gov/uploadedfiles/Documents/blockgrantguidanceappendix.pdf]

How Are We Doing?

In 2017, 1.0% of live births for all Alaskans had very low birth weight in Alaska, a level essentially unchanged since 1990. Live born infants enrolled in Medicaid had a higher prevalence of very low birth weight than those not enrolled in Medicaid, 1.3% and 0.6% respectively in 2017. There are no significant racial or regional differences in Alaska for the most recent data.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

In 2017, the rate of very low birth weight was 1.4% of births in the United States compared to 1.0% in Alaska.^3^ Alaska has consistently had a lower prevalence of very low birth weight compared to the nation as a whole for the period since 1990. Alaska Native people have a rate of very low birth rate that has been equal to or less than the national rate since 1991. {{class .SmallerFont 3. Hamilton BE, Martin JA, Osterman MJK, Driscoll AK, Rossen LM. Births: Provisional data for 2017. Vital Statistics Rapid Release; no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. May 2018.[https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/vsrr/report004.pdf]. Accessed on November 1, 2018. }}

What Is Being Done?

Prevention of unintended pregnancy as well as early and continuous prenatal care may improve infant outcomes. According to the U.S. Surgeon General, women who quit smoking before or during pregnancy reduce the risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight (LBW). Furthermore, women who stop smoking by the first trimester have infants with weight and body measurements comparable with those of nonsmokers. Studies suggest that smoking in the third trimester is particularly detrimental to fetal growth.^4^ Alaska is participating in the Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network (CoIIN) to Reduce Infant Mortality and improve birth outcomes. Through CoIIN, Alaska is using evidence-based practices to focus on factors that may influence the rate of infants born with low birth weight; such as smoking cessation (before, during and/or after pregnancy), substance use cessation, and preconception/interconception health.^5^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking-50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General, 2014. [http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/50-years-of-progress/]. Published 2014. Accessed November 2, 2018. 5. NICHQ. Collaborative improvement and innovation network to reduce infant mortality. [https://www.nichq.org/project/collaborative-improvement-and-innovation-network-reduce-infant-mortality-infant-mortality]. Accessed November 2, 2018. }}

Evidence-based Practices

The Annie E. Casey Foundation has prepared the KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief on Preventing Low Birth Weight.^6^ This KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief describes five strategies that are essential to any plan aimed at reducing the rate of LBW births: [[br]]Expand access to medical and dental services, taking a lifespan approach to health care [[br]]Focus intensively on smoking prevention and cessation [[br]]Ensure that pregnant women get adequate nutrition [[br]]Address demographic, social, and environmental risk factors [[br]]Support sustained research on the causes of LBW. Other rigorously evaluated programs have been shown to be effective for minimizing negative outcomes for low birthweight infants: [[br]]Nurse-Family Partnership [http://www.childtrends.org/?programs=nurse-family-partnership] [[br]][https://www.nursefamilypartnership.org/] [[br]][http://alaska.providence.org/services/n/nursefamily] [[br]][https://www.southcentralfoundation.com/services/home-based-services/] [[br]]Early Intervention Program For Low Birth Weight Infants [http://www.childtrends.org/?programs=early-intervention-program-for-low-birth-weight-infants] [[br]]Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) [http://www.childtrends.org/?programs=infant-health-and-development-program-ihdp] [[br]]Transactional Model of Early Home Intervention [https://www.childtrends.org/?programs=transactional-model-of-early-home-intervention] [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 6. The Annie E. Casey Foundation. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief Preventing Low Birth Weight. July 2009. [http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED507776.pdf]. Accessed November 2, 2018. }}


Related Indicators

Relevant Population Characteristics

Population characteristics associated with higher risk of having a low birth weight infant include: [[br]]- Maternal age (mothers younger than 25 and older than 35) [[br]]- Race and ethnicity (Alaskans who are Black, Hispanic, or Asian-Pacific Islanders have higher rates of low birth weight than the general population of Alaskans) [[br]]- Low income [[br]]- Low educational attainment [[br]]- Being unmarried [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 2. Health Effects Low Birthweight and the Environment - CDC Tracking Network. [http://ephtracking.cdc.gov/showRbLBWGrowthRetardationEnv.action]. Accessed November 8, 2016. }}

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Health Care System Factors

Access to prenatal care, affected by health insurance, influences low birth weight. [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 2. Health Effects Low Birthweight and the Environment - CDC Tracking Network. [http://ephtracking.cdc.gov/showRbLBWGrowthRetardationEnv.action]. Accessed November 8, 2016. }}

Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Risk Factors

RISK FACTORS: Any baby born prematurely is more likely to be very small. However, other factors that can contribute to the risk of VLBW include^1^: [[br]]- Race: African-American babies are twice as likely as Caucasian to be VLBW. [[br]]- Age: Teen mothers (especially if <15 years old) have a much higher risk of having VLBW infant. [[br]]- Multiple birth babies are at increased risk of being VLBW because they often are premature. More than 50% of twins and other multiple gestations are VLBW. [[br]]-Maternal health: Women exposed to drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes during pregnancy are more likely to have LBW or VLBW babies. Mothers of lower socioeconomic status are also more likely to have poorer pregnancy nutrition, inadequate prenatal care, and complications of pregnancy. All are factors that can contribute to VLBW.^1^ Risk factors for low birth weight include^2^: [[br]]- Lack of weight gain [[br]]- Preterm births [[br]]- Maternal chronic disease, such as hypertension [[br]]- Maternal obstetric family history, such as having been born low birth weight themselves [[br]]- Multiple gestation (e.g. twins) [[br]]- Low pre-pregnancy weight [[br]]- Short intervals between pregnancies [[br]]- Previous pregnancy resulting in a low birth weight infant [[br]]- Tobacco or alcohol use during pregnancy [[br]]- Exposure to air pollution and drinking water contaminated with lead [[br]]- Stress [[br]]- Domestic violence or abuse [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Very Low and Extremely Low Birthweight Infants. Intensive Care Nursery House Staff Manual. UCSF Children's Hospital. 2004. [https://www.ucsfbenioffchildrens.org/pdf/manuals/20_VLBW_ELBW.pdf]. Accessed August 22, 2018. 2. Health Effects Low Birthweight and the Environment - CDC Tracking Network. [http://ephtracking.cdc.gov/showRbLBWGrowthRetardationEnv.action]. Accessed August 22, 2018. }}

Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Health Status Outcomes

Very low birth weight infants are at increased risk for a number of health problems, including abnormal growth and infant death.

Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Percentage of Live Born Infants With Very Low Birth Weight, all Alaskans, Alaska Native people, and U.S., 1990-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsYearPercentage of live birthsLower LimitUpper LimitNoteNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 84
All Alaskans19900.90.81.111111,901
All Alaskans19910.80.71.09511,687
All Alaskans19920.90.81.111011,727
All Alaskans19930.90.71.19911,090
All Alaskans19941.00.81.210710,683
All Alaskans19950.90.81.19610,224
All Alaskans19960.90.71.19110,047
All Alaskans19971.20.91.41179,964
All Alaskans19981.21.01.51239,926
All Alaskans19991.00.81.2959,962
All Alaskans20000.80.71.0839,977
All Alaskans20011.31.01.512610,005
All Alaskans20020.90.81.1939,946
All Alaskans20030.90.71.19010,087
All Alaskans20041.21.01.412110,336
All Alaskans20050.90.71.19510,452
All Alaskans20061.10.91.412510,996
All Alaskans20070.90.71.19911,052
All Alaskans20081.00.81.211511,440
All Alaskans20091.00.81.211211,317
All Alaskans20100.90.81.110711,470
All Alaskans20110.90.81.110811,441
All Alaskans20120.90.71.110211,166
All Alaskans20131.00.81.211111,453
All Alaskans20140.90.71.110411,398
All Alaskans20151.00.81.210811,295
All Alaskans20161.00.81.211211,215
All Alaskans20171.00.81.210410,447
Alaska Native people19901.41.01.9392,819
Alaska Native people19910.70.41.1Statistically unreliable192,788
Alaska Native people19920.90.51.3232,693
Alaska Native people19931.00.61.5242,459
Alaska Native people19940.90.61.4212,344
Alaska Native people19950.90.61.4212,301
Alaska Native people19961.10.71.6262,405
Alaska Native people19971.41.02.0342,396
Alaska Native people19981.10.71.6262,407
Alaska Native people19990.80.51.3202,429
Alaska Native people20001.10.71.6272,453
Alaska Native people20011.41.01.9352,499
Alaska Native people20021.30.81.8302,398
Alaska Native people20031.10.71.5262,458
Alaska Native people20041.30.91.8332,574
Alaska Native people20050.70.41.0Statistically unreliable182,704
Alaska Native people20061.00.71.5282,698
Alaska Native people20070.90.61.3242,775
Alaska Native people20080.90.61.4272,888
Alaska Native people20091.10.71.5322,956
Alaska Native people20100.90.61.3262,891
Alaska Native people20111.00.71.4282,830
Alaska Native people20121.10.71.5302,803
Alaska Native people20131.30.91.8372,902
Alaska Native people20141.00.61.4282,897
Alaska Native people20151.41.01.8392,884
Alaska Native people20161.30.91.8393,002
Alaska Native people20171.10.71.6302,726
U.S.19901.3
U.S.19911.3
U.S.19921.3
U.S.19931.3
U.S.19941.3
U.S.19951.4
U.S.19961.4
U.S.19971.4
U.S.19981.4
U.S.19991.4
U.S.20001.4
U.S.20011.4
U.S.20021.5
U.S.20031.4
U.S.20041.5
U.S.20051.5
U.S.20061.5
U.S.20071.5
U.S.20081.5
U.S.20091.4
U.S.20101.4
U.S.20111.4
U.S.20121.4
U.S.20131.4
U.S.20141.4
U.S.20151.4
U.S.20161.4
U.S.20171.4

Data Notes

Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are those weighting less than 1,500 grams (3 lbs 5 oz) at birth, regardless of gestational age. Data for very low birth weight calculated by Maternal and Child Health Epidemiology Unit (MCH-Epi), Section of Women's, Children's, and Family Health in November 2018. Birth certificate data updated by HAVRS on September 14, 2018 [SAS analysis in November 2018].   MCH-Epi is currently using an any mention criterion for determining Alaska Native status. Rates based upon fewer than 20 occurrences are statistically unreliable and should be used with caution.

Data Sources

  • [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Health Analytics and Vital Records Section (HAVRS)], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services
  • National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Percentage of Live Born Infants With Very Low Birth Weight, by race, Alaska, 2013-2017 (5-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

RacePercentage of live birthsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 4
American Indian/Native Alaskan1.21.01.417314,412
Asian/Pacific Islander1.00.81.3625,907
Black2.41.83.1572,352
White0.70.60.823331,748

Data Notes

Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are those weighting less than 1,500 grams (3 lbs 5 oz) at birth, regardless of gestational age. Data for very low birth weight calculated by Maternal and Child Health Epidemiology Unit (MCH-Epi), Section of Women's, Children's, and Family Health in November 2018. Birth certificate data updated by HAVRS on September 14, 2018 [SAS analysis in November 2018].   Beginning in 2013, Alaska birth certificates allow for one or more races to be identified. We use a prioritized race classification starting with any mention of Alaska Native, followed by any mention of Black, then by any mention of of Asian or Pacific Islander, and ending with any mention of White. All other or unknown races are excluded. This method is preferred over the race alone or bridged race methods because the denominators more closely align with the preceding years. It also eliminates the chance of including the same person in 2 or more races.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Health Analytics and Vital Records Section (HAVRS)], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services


Percentage of Live Born Infants With Very Low Birth Weight, by Medicaid status, Alaska, 2007-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Medicaid EligibilityYearPercentage of live birthsLower LimitUpper LimitNoteNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 22
Medicaid20071.41.11.7765,487
Medicaid20081.41.11.8825,742
Medicaid20091.51.21.9905,915
Medicaid20101.51.21.9936,053
Medicaid20111.51.21.9905,919
Medicaid20121.51.21.8885,932
Medicaid20131.71.42.1975,582
Medicaid20141.21.01.6685,496
Medicaid20151.10.91.4615,448
Medicaid20161.31.01.6735,709
Medicaid20171.31.01.7725,408
non-Medicaid20070.40.30.6235,564
non-Medicaid20080.60.40.8335,693
non-Medicaid20090.40.30.6225,402
non-Medicaid20100.30.10.4Statistically unreliable145,397
non-Medicaid20110.30.20.5Statistically unreliable185,517
non-Medicaid20120.30.20.5Statistically unreliable145,233
non-Medicaid20130.20.10.4Statistically unreliable145,866
non-Medicaid20140.60.40.8365,832
non-Medicaid20150.80.61.1475,840
non-Medicaid20160.70.50.9395,503
non-Medicaid20170.60.40.1325,039

Data Notes

Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are those weighting less than 1,500 grams (3 lbs 5 oz) at birth, regardless of gestational age. Data for very low birth weight calculated by Maternal and Child Health Epidemiology Unit (MCH-Epi), Section of Women's, Children's, and Family Health in November 2018. Birth certificate data updated by HAVRS on September 14, 2018 [SAS analysis in November 2018].   Alaska links vital records to Medicaid/CHIP enrollment data records to determine enrollment of the mother, father, or infant at the time of birth. Rates based upon fewer than 20 occurrences are statistically unreliable and should be used with caution.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Health Analytics and Vital Records Section (HAVRS)], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services


Percentage of Live Born Infants with Very Low Birth Weights, by Alaska public health regions, 2013-2017 (5-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of live birthsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 8
Anchorage1.00.91.223622,681
Gulf Coast0.70.51.0385,288
Interior0.90.71.1829,533
Mat-Su0.80.61.0587,147
Northern1.10.71.5302,821
Southeast1.10.81.5464,063
Southwest1.20.91.5494,246
Statewide1.00.91.154055,809

Data Notes

Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are those weighting less than 1,500 grams (3 lbs 5 oz) at birth, regardless of gestational age. Data for very low birth weight calculated by Maternal and Child Health Epidemiology Unit (MCH-Epi), Section of Women's, Children's, and Family Health in November 2018. Birth certificate data updated by HAVRS on September 14, 2018 [SAS analysis in November 2018].   Region is determined by maternal residence at birth, not site of delivery.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Health Analytics and Vital Records Section (HAVRS)], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services


Percentage of Live Born Infants With Very Low Birth Weight by behavioral health regions, all Alaskans, 2013-2017 (5-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of live birthsLower LimitUpper LimitNoteNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 11
Anchorage Muncipality1.00.91.223622,681
Fairbanks North Star Borough0.90.71.1758,488
City and Borough of Juneau1.30.81.9251,906
Kenai Peninsula Borough0.80.61.2303,536
Matanuska-Susitna Borough0.80.61.1587,147
Northwest Region1.10.71.5302,821
Other Interior Region0.60.31.1Statistically unreliable111,721
Other SE - Northern1.00.51.8Statistically unreliable101,011
Other SE - Southern1.00.51.7Statistically unreliable111,146
Y-K Delta Region1.00.71.4343,298
Southwest Region0.90.61.5Statistically unreliable192,024

Data Notes

Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are those weighting less than 1,500 grams (3 lbs 5 oz) at birth, regardless of gestational age. Data for very low birth weight calculated by Maternal and Child Health Epidemiology Unit (MCH-Epi), Section of Women's, Children's, and Family Health in November 2018. Birth certificate data updated by HAVRS on September 14, 2018 [SAS analysis in November 2018].   Region is determined by maternal residence at birth, not site of delivery. Rates based upon fewer than 20 occurrences are statistically unreliable and should be used with caution.


Percentage of Live Born Infants With Very Low Birth Weight by boroughs/census areas, Alaska 2008-2017 (10-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of live birthsLower LimitUpper LimitNoteNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 31
Alaska Total1.00.91.01,086112,643
Aleutians East Borough**Suppressed168
Aleutians West CA2.10.94.4Statistically unreliable7326
Anchorage Municipality1.00.91.147445,990
Bethel CA0.90.61.2374,325
Bristol Bay Borough**Suppressed101
Denali Borough**Suppressed239
Dillingham CA0.80.31.5Statistically unreliable81,035
Fairbanks North Star Borough1.00.91.217316,898
Haines Borough**Suppressed208
Hoonah-Angoon CA**Suppressed218
Juneau Borough0.90.71.3363,874
Kenai Peninsula Borough0.80.61.0557,060
Ketchikan Gateway Borough0.90.51.5Statistically unreliable161,744
Kodiak Island Borough0.60.31.0Statistically unreliable122,171
Kusilvak CA1.30.81.8302,397
Lake and Peninsula Borough**Suppressed318
Matanuska-Susitna Borough0.80.60.910313,674
Nome CA0.90.61.4212,326
North Slope Borough1.40.92.0241,749
Northwest Arctic Borough1.30.81.9241,917
Petersburgh Borough**Suppressed365
Prince of Wales-Hyder CA1.20.52.2Statistically unreliable9770
Sitka Borough1.60.92.6Statistically unreliable16999
Skagway Municipality**Suppressed0114
Southeast Fairbanks CA1.10.61.9Statistically unreliable121,127
Valdez-Cordova CA0.50.21.1Statistically unreliable71,295
Wrangell Borough**Suppressed246
Yakutat Borough**Suppressed80
Yukon-Koyukuk CA**Suppressed856

Data Notes

Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are those weighting less than 1,500 grams (3 lbs 5 oz) at birth, regardless of gestational age. Data for very low birth weight calculated by Maternal and Child Health Epidemiology Unit (MCH-Epi), Section of Women's, Children's, and Family Health in November 2018. Birth certificate data updated by HAVRS on September 14, 2018 [SAS analysis in November 2018].   Census area is determined by maternal residence at birth, not site of delivery. Rates based upon fewer than 20 occurrences are statistically unreliable and should be used with caution. Rates based on fewer than 6 occurrences are not reported. Small population sizes in some census areas caused rates to be unreliable or not listed. Unreliable rates may not accurately reflect the true underlying risk in the population. ** = Data not available Results for Skagway Municipality and Hoonah-Angoon Census Area are replicated from the combined earlier Skagway-Hoonah-Angoon Census Area. Results for the Wrangell Borough and the Petersburg Borough are replicated from the combined earlier Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Health Analytics and Vital Records Section (HAVRS)], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services


Percentage of Live Born Infants With Very Low Birth Weight by tribal health regions, all Alaskans, 2013-2017 (5-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of live birthsLower LimitUpper LimitNoteNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 12
Aleutians and Pribilofs3.11.26.4Statistically unreliable7227
Anchorage/Mat-Su1.00.91.129429,828
Arctic Slope1.10.52.2Statistically unreliable8702
Bristol Bay1.00.52.1Statistically unreliable8763
Copper R/Prince William Snd.**Suppressed685
Interior0.90.71.1849,516
Kenai Peninsula0.80.61.2303,535
Kodiak Area**Suppressed1,076
Northwest Arctic1.60.92.6Statistically unreliable16985
Norton Sound**Suppressed1,086
Southeast1.10.81.5464,063
Yukon-Kuskokwim1.00.71.4343,313

Data Notes

Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are those weighting less than 1,500 grams (3 lbs 5 oz) at birth, regardless of gestational age. Data for very low birth weight calculated by Maternal and Child Health Epidemiology Unit (MCH-Epi), Section of Women's, Children's, and Family Health in November 2018. Birth certificate data updated by HAVRS on September 14, 2018 [SAS analysis in November 2018].   Region determined by maternal residence at birth, not site of delivery. Rates based upon fewer than 20 occurrences are statistically unreliable and should be used with caution. Rates based on fewer than 6 occurrences are not reported. ** = Data not available

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Health Analytics and Vital Records Section (HAVRS)], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services

References and Community Resources

'''References:''' 1. UCSF Children's Hospital. Intensive Care Nursery House Staff Manual. Very low and extremely low birthweight infants. [https://www.ucsfbenioffchildrens.org/pdf/manuals/20_VLBW_ELBW.pdf]. Published 2004. Accessed November 2, 2018. 2. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Reproductive and birth outcomes: low birth weight.[http://ephtracking.cdc.gov/showRbLBWGrowthRetardationEnv.action]. Accessed November 2, 2018. 3. Hamilton BE, Martin JA, Osterman MJK, Driscoll AK, Rossen LM. Births: Provisional data for 2017. Vital Statistics Rapid Release; no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. May 2018.[https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/vsrr/report004.pdf]. Accessed on November 1, 2018. 4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking-50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General, 2014. [http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/50-years-of-progress/]. Published 2014. Accessed November 2, 2018. 5. NICHQ. Collaborative improvement and innovation network to reduce infant mortality. [https://www.nichq.org/project/collaborative-improvement-and-innovation-network-reduce-infant-mortality-infant-mortality]. Accessed November 2, 2018. 6. The Annie E. Casey Foundation. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief Preventing Low Birth Weight. July 2009. [http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED507776.pdf]. Accessed November 2, 2018. '''Resources:''' Alaska Maternal and Child Health Data Book 2008: Health Status Edition [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/wcfh/Pages/mchepi/mchdatabook/2008.aspx] American Academy of Pediatrics [http://www.aap.org] American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [http://www.acog.org] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION) Office on Smoking and Health [https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/about/osh/index.htm] Child Trends [http://www.childtrends.org/] KIDS COUNT [http://www.aecf.org/work/kids-count/] March of Dimes [http://www.marchofdimes.com] National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health [http://www.ncemch.org] Promising Practices Network on Children, Families and Communities [http://www.promisingpractices.net] Trust for America's Health [http://www.healthyamericans.org] (202) 223-9870 U.S. Public Health Service's Office on Women's Health [https://www.womenshealth.gov]

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Alaska health promotion resources may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

AK-IBIS Web Citation

Use and reproduction of the information published on this website are encouraged and may be done without permission. The following citation should accompany information from this website whenever it is used, reproduced, or published:

AK-IBIS Indicator Citation:
"[Indicator name]. Retrieved on [insert date] from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Example:
Diabetes Prevalence. Retrieved on March 25, 2016, from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Page Content Updated On 11/02/2018, Published on 01/02/2019
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sat, 20 July 2019 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Tue, 12 Feb 2019 14:04:53 AKST
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sat, 20 July 2019 5:23:46 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Tue, 12 Feb 2019 14:04:53 AKST