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State of Alaska

Complete Health Indicator Report of Rape (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 12)

Definition

The rape rate is reported as the number of rapes per 100,000 population. In December 2011, the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program changed its Summary Reporting System (SRS) definition of rape: "Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim."

Numerator

Number of reported rapes.

Denominator

Mid-year resident population for the calendar year.

Data Interpretation Issues

The Uniform Crime Reporting Program provides statistics based on data contributed by local, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies. Caution should be used when comparing statistics from different jurisdictions, and consideration should be given to the various variables that affect crime and law enforcement's response in a given jurisdiction. The numerator of the rate is by place of occurrence, not place of residence. Statistics vary because of differences in how rape is defined and how data are collected. A limitation to Uniform Crime Reporting data prior to the definition change in December 2011 was that the definition used for "forcible" rape was very narrow and restricted to females. Cases were defined as penile-vaginal penetration of a female forcibly and against her will, therefore other types of rapes as defined by federal law were not reported.

Why Is This Important?

Sexual violence refers to any sexual activity where consent is not obtained or freely given. Anyone can experience or perpetrate sexual violence. Most victims of sexual violence are female. Perpetrators are usually someone known to the victim and can be a friend, intimate partner, coworker, neighbor, or family member of the victim.^1^ Sexual violence is a significant problem in the United States^1^: [[br]] In a nationwide survey, 7.3% of high school students reported having been forced to have sex. More female (10.5%) than male (4.2%) students reported experiencing forced sex in their lifetimes. [[br]] An estimated 20% to 25% of college women in the United States were victims of attempted or completed rape during their college career and 5.2% in the past year. [[br]] Nearly 1 in 5 women and 1 in 59 men in the United States have been raped at some time in their lives. [[br]] 6.7% of men reported that they were made to penetrate someone else during their lifetime. [[br]] An estimated 12.5% of women and 5.8% of men have experienced sexual coercion in their lifetime; and 27.3% of women and 10.8% of men have experienced unwanted sexual contact. Research has identified the following risk factors for sexual violence perpetration: alcohol and drug use, impulsive and antisocial tendencies, hostility towards women, history of sexual abuse as a child, witnessing family violence as a child, associating with sexually aggressive and delinquent peers, strongly patriarchal relationship or family environment, lack of employment opportunities, general tolerance of sexual assault within the community, weak community sanctions against perpetrators of sexual violence, societal norms that support sexual violence, male superiority and sexual entitlement, and weak laws and policies related to gender equity.^2^ Many long-lasting physical symptoms and illnesses have been associated with sexual victimization including chronic pelvic pain, premenstrual syndrome, gastrointestinal disorders, and a variety of chronic pain disorders, including headache, back pain, and facial pain. Immediate reactions to rape include shock, disbelief, denial, fear, confusion, anxiety, withdrawal, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. In addition, victims often experience anxiety, guilt, nervousness, phobias, substance abuse, sleep disturbances, depression, alienation, and sexual dysfunction. Women with a history of sexual assault are more likely to attempt or commit suicide than other women.^2^ [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Understanding Sexual Violence Factsheet 2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/sv-factsheet.pdf]. Accessed August 8, 2016. 2. Risk and Protective Factors | Sexual Violence | Violence Prevention | Injury Center | CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/sexualviolence/riskprotectivefactors.html]. Accessed August 8, 2016. }}

Healthy People Objective: (Developmental) Reduce rape or attempted rape

U.S. Target: Developmental
State Target: Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 113.0 per 100,000 population. For the legacy definition of forcible rate, the goal was 67.5 per 100,000 females.

How Are We Doing?

Half of adult women in Alaska have experienced violence in their lifetime, and 1 in 12 have experienced violence in the past year. Four in 10 have experienced intimate partner violence in their lifetime, and 1 in 16 have experienced intimate partner violence in the past year. Three in 10 have experienced sexual violence in their lifetime, and 1 in 34 have experienced sexual violence in the past year. Some women experienced violence more than once. While the rates of violence against women in the State of Alaska are trending in the right direction, they remain unacceptably high.^3^ Almost 75% if Alaskans have experienced or know someone who has experienced domestic violence or sexual assault. The Alaska rape rate is 2.5 times the national average. Child sexual assault in Alaska is almost six times the national average.^4^ In 2014, the rate of rape in Alaska was 104.7 per 100,000 population, a decrease of 16.5% from the level of 125.4 per 100,000 population in 2013. The rate of rape in 2014 was below the revised Healthy Alaskans 2020 goal of 113.0 per 100,000 population brought about by the change of the indicator to rape as opposed to forcible rape. The Healthy Alaskans 2020 goal was set as a 10% improvement over the baseline value of 125.4 from 2013 brought about by the change in reporting the newly expanded definition of rape. The legacy definition of "forcible rape" was more restricted and limited to female victims. According to this definition, the rate of rape in Alaska was 75.3 per 100,000 females in 2014.[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 3. Rosay A, Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Violence in the State of Alaska: Key Results from the 2015 Alaska Victimization Survey. UAA Justice Center. [http://justice.uaa.alaska.edu/research/2010/1103.05.avs_fy15/1103. 051a.statewide_summary.pdf]. Accessed August 8, 2016. 4. Statistics. Standing Together Against Rape. [http://www.staralaska.com/statistics.html]. Accessed August 8, 2016. }}

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

In 2014, the rate of rape in Alaska was 104.7 per 100,000 population, nearly 3 times higher than the level in the U.S. of 36.6 per 100,000 population. For the legacy definition using "forcible rape", Alaska had a rate of 75.3 per 100,000 females in 2014, a rate that was still nearly 3 times higher than the comparable U.S. value of 26.4 per 100,000 females.

What Is Being Done?

The [http://www.dps.state.ak.us/cdvsa/index.html Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault (The Council or CDVSA)] was created by legislation and established in the Department of Public Safety in 1981. For more than 30 years, the Council has funded programs across the state of Alaska to end domestic violence and sexual assault.^5^ The Council funds: 24-hour emergency support; Safe shelter; Safety planning; Prevention initiatives; Children's services including child care, counseling, and group activities; Counseling for victims; Accountability for batterers; Information and referral for employment, housing, and medical care; Legal advocacy and civil legal referral; Community coordination focused on systemic change; and Rural outreach and community education programs. [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 5. Alaska's Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault. Annual Report 2015. [http://www.dps.state.ak.us/cdvsa/docs/reports/CDVSAAnnualReport2015.pdf]. Accessed July 13, 2016. }}

Evidence-based Practices

As part of the Healthy Alaskans 2020 health improvement process, groups of Alaska subject matter experts met over a period of months in a rigorous review process to identify and prioritize strategies to address the 25 health priorities. Public health partners around the state are aligning work around these approaches adapted to Alaska's unique needs. '''Strategy 1:''' [[br]]Build community capacity for prevention. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]The standard for domestic violence and sexual assault community-based prevention work in Alaska is based on the prevention model developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Working with communities to build their capacity to support the work of prevention is the first step towards building comprehensive programming. Comprehensive programming coordinates strategies across multiple settings and populations within each community. Coordinated programming that includes multiple types of activities across multiple settings and populations is most effective in changing the behaviors, beliefs, and norms that impact the incidence of domestic and sexual violence. '''Sources:''' [[br]]Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancement and Leadership Through Alliances (DELTA): [http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/DELTA/index.html?s_cid=cd_281] CDC [http://www.cdc.gov/prc/prevention-strategies/index.htm Prevention Strategies] [http://www.andvsa.org/pathways-statewide-prevention/ ANDVSA Pathways Statewide Prevention] Sabol WJ, Coulton CJ, Korbin JE. Building Community Capacity for Violence Prevention. J Interpers Violence. 2004; 19(3): 322-340. Chavis DM. Building community capacity to prevent violence through coalitions and partnerships. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 1995; 6(2): 234-245. '''Strategy 2:*''' [[br]]Promote values and beliefs that reinforce safe and healthy relationships. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]This strategy emerges from the social norms approach where inaccurate perceptions about norms, values, beliefs, and risk and protective factors are corrected to facilitate health promotion and violence prevention. Social norms interventions have been successfully used by other prevention efforts (e.g., obesity prevention, binge drinking, and tobacco cessation). Research is starting to show positive impacts on violence prevention. '''Strategy 3:*''' [[br]]Develop plans and approaches for early interventions with juveniles who commit acts of sexual abuse or act out sexually in inappropriate ways. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]Few interventions are available for juveniles who commit acts of sexual abuse or act out sexually in inappropriate ways. Developing and implementing early interventions is important because research shows "more than half of adult sex offenders began perpetration as juveniles" (Veneziano & Veneziano, 2002:248), the best intervention methods are those that are implemented as early as possible (Vizard, 2013), and early intervention methods (such as cognitive behavioral treatment) can reduce future perpetration (St. Armand, Bard, & Silovsky, 2008). *Sources for Strategy 2 and Strategy 3 can be found at [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/EBS/HA2020_EBS12_Rape.pdf]. A listing of strategies, actions, and key partners on this measure can be found at: [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/Actions-Partners_12_Rape.pdf].

Available Services

Statewide 24-hour Standing Together Against Rape: Anchorage Crisis Line 907-276-7273; Statewide Crisis Line 1-800-478-8999 [http://www.staralaska.com/]


Related Indicators

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Rate of rape per 100,000 population, all Alaskans and U.S., 2013-2020

::chart - missing::

Alaska ComparisonsYear
Record Count: 12
All Alaskans2013125.4
All Alaskans2014104.7
U.S.201335.9
U.S.201436.6
Healthy Alaskans Goal2013113.0
Healthy Alaskans Goal2014113.0
Healthy Alaskans Goal2015113.0
Healthy Alaskans Goal2016113.0
Healthy Alaskans Goal2017113.0
Healthy Alaskans Goal2018113.0
Healthy Alaskans Goal2019113.0
Healthy Alaskans Goal2020113.0

Data Notes

In December 2011, the Uniform Crime Reporting Program's definition of rape became: "Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim." This definition includes any gender of victim or perpetrator. Sexual penetration means the penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person. This definition also includes instances in which the victim is incapable of giving consent because of temporary or permanent mental or physical incapacity (including due to the influence of drugs or alcohol) or because of age. Physical resistance is not required on the part of the victim to demonstrate lack of consent. Proponents of the new definition and omission of the term "forcible" say that the changes broaden the scope of the previously narrow definitions by capturing gender neutrality, the penetration of any bodily orifice, penetration by any object or body part, and offenses in which physical force is not involved. Now instances in which offenders use drugs or alcohol on victims who know them, or offenders who sodomize victims of the same gender will be counted as rape for statistical purposes.

Data Source

Uniform Crime Reporting Online Data Tool, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice ([http://www.ucrdatatool.gov])


Rate of forcible rape per 100,000 female population, all Alaskans and U.S., 2000-2020

::chart - missing::

Alaska ComparisonsYearRate of forcible rape per 100,000 females
Record Count: 38
All Alaskans200079.3
All Alaskans200179.1
All Alaskans200279.7
All Alaskans200393.3
All Alaskans200484.8
All Alaskans200581.1
All Alaskans200676.4
All Alaskans200779.7
All Alaskans200865.1
All Alaskans200973.4
All Alaskans201074.6
All Alaskans201160.2
All Alaskans201279.8
All Alaskans201387.6
All Alaskans201475.3
U.S.200032.0
U.S.200131.8
U.S.200233.1
U.S.200332.3
U.S.200432.4
U.S.200531.8
U.S.200631.6
U.S.200730.6
U.S.200829.8
U.S.200929.1
U.S.201027.7
U.S.201127.0
U.S.201227.1
U.S.201325.9
U.S.201426.4
Healthy Alaskans Goal201367.5
Healthy Alaskans Goal201467.5
Healthy Alaskans Goal201567.5
Healthy Alaskans Goal201667.5
Healthy Alaskans Goal201767.5
Healthy Alaskans Goal201867.5
Healthy Alaskans Goal201967.5
Healthy Alaskans Goal202067.5

Data Notes

Forcible rape statistics are reported according to the historical definition (UCR Handbook 2004, Forcible Rape Definition: "The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will.") By definition, sexual attacks on males were excluded from the forcible rape category and were classified as assaults or other sex offenses depending on the nature of the crime and the extent of injury. Although statistics according to this definition are maintained for trends, rape has been defined since December 2011 as "Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim." Data according to the new definition became available starting for 2013. Numerator: Number of reported rapes of females. Denominator: Mid-year resident female population for the calendar year.

Data Source

Uniform Crime Reporting Online Data Tool, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice ([http://www.ucrdatatool.gov])

References and Community Resources

'''References:''' 1. Understanding Sexual Violence Factsheet 2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/sv-factsheet.pdf]. Accessed August 8, 2016. 2. Risk and Protective Factors | Sexual Violence | Violence Prevention | Injury Center | CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/sexualviolence/riskprotectivefactors.html]. Accessed August 8, 2016. 3. Rosay A, Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Violence in the State of Alaska: Key Results from the 2015 Alaska Victimization Survey. UAA Justice Center. [http://justice.uaa.alaska.edu/research/2010/1103.05.avs_fy15/1103. 051a.statewide_summary.pdf]. Accessed August 8, 2016. 4. Statistics. Standing Together Against Rape. [http://www.staralaska.com/statistics.html]. Accessed August 8, 2016. 5. Alaska's Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault. Annual Report 2015. [http://www.dps.state.ak.us/cdvsa/docs/reports/CDVSAAnnualReport2015.pdf]. Accessed July 13, 2016. '''Resources:''' Alaska's Council on Domestic Violence & Sexual Assault http://www.dps.state.ak.us/cdvsa/index.html] National Sexual Violence Resource Center [http://www.nsvrc.org] Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network [http://www.rainn.org]

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Alaska health promotion resources may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

AK-IBIS Web Citation

Use and reproduction of the information published on this website are encouraged and may be done without permission. The following citation should accompany information from this website whenever it is used, reproduced, or published:

AK-IBIS Indicator Citation:
"[Indicator name]. Retrieved on [insert date] from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Example:
Diabetes Prevalence. Retrieved on March 25, 2016, from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Page Content Updated On 08/15/2016, Published on 08/15/2016
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Fri, 02 December 2016 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Mon, 15 Aug 2016 09:58:48 AKDT
The information provided above is from the Department of Health's Center for Health Data IBIS-PH web site (http://ibis.health.state.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Fri, 02 December 2016 19:35:37 from Department of Health, Center for Health Data, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.state.gov ".

Content updated: Mon, 15 Aug 2016 09:58:48 AKDT