Complete Indicator Profile - Rape (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 12)

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State of Alaska

Complete Indicator Profile of Rape (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 12)

Definition

In December 2011, the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program changed its Summary Reporting System (SRS) definition of rape: "Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim."

The rape rate is reported as the number of rapes per 100,000 population.

Numerator

Number of reported rapes.

Denominator

Mid-year resident population for the calendar year, then converted to a rate per 100,000.

Data Interpretation Issues

Statistics vary because of differences in how rape is defined and how data are collected. A limitation to Uniform Crime Reporting data prior to the definition change in December 2011 was that the definition used for "forcible" rape was very narrow and restricted to females. Cases were defined as penile-vaginal penetration of a female forcibly and against her will, therefore other types of rapes as defined by federal law were not reported.

The numerator of the rate is by place of occurrence, not place of residence.

Why Is This Important?

The prevalence of sexual violence and intimate partner violence is a major public health concern in Alaska. Witnessing or being a victim of domestic violence is associated with high rates of fair-to-poor assessments of general health, asthma diagnoses, current smoking, and lack of emotional support. Individuals diagnosed with anxiety and/or depression have some of the highest prevalence of sexual and intimate partner violence.

Women are more likely to be victims of sexual violence than men. Furthermore, sexual violence has been called a tragedy of youth. Sexual violence starts very early in life and more than half of all rapes of women (60.4%) and men (69.2%) occur before age 18. According to the National Violence Against Women Survey, American Indian and Alaskan Native women were significantly more likely (34.1%) to report that they were raped than African American women (18.8%) or White women (17.9%).[1]

Few sexual assaults result in a visit to a doctor or medical center for an examination after the incident. Victims say they do not seek medical attention because they were not injured, they were too young to ask for help, they were afraid someone would find out what happened, and they were not thinking clearly. The main reasons for seeking medical care after a sexual assault were to be checked for a sexually transmitted infection, pregnancy, or to receive emergency contraception.

Research has identified the following risk factors for sexual violence perpetration: alcohol and drug use, impulsive and antisocial tendencies, hostility towards women, history of sexual abuse as a child, witnessing family violence as a child, associating with sexually aggressive and delinquent peers, strongly patriarchal relationship or family environment, lack of employment opportunities, general tolerance of sexual assault within the community, weak community sanctions against perpetrators of sexual violence, societal norms that support sexual violence, male superiority and sexual entitlement, and weak laws and policies related to gender equity.[2]

Many long-lasting physical symptoms and illnesses have been associated with sexual victimization including chronic pelvic pain, premenstrual syndrome, gastrointestinal disorders, and a variety of chronic pain disorders, including headache, back pain, and facial pain. Immediate reactions to rape include shock, disbelief, denial, fear, confusion, anxiety, withdrawal, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. In addition, victims often experience anxiety, guilt, nervousness, phobias, substance abuse, sleep disturbances, depression, alienation, and sexual dysfunction. Women with a history of sexual assault are more likely to attempt or commit suicide than other women.[3]

References:
1. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Sexual Violence Fact Sheet (accessed 11/28/2009) http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/dvp/SV/SVDataSheet.pdf
2. Source: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Sexual Violence Fact Sheet (accessed 10/28/2009) http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/dvp/SV/svp-risk_protective.htm
3. Source: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Sexual Violence Fact Sheet (accessed 10/28/2009) http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/dvp/SV/svp-consequences.htm

Healthy People Objective IVP-40.1:

(Developmental) Reduce rape or attempted rape
U.S. Target: Developmental
State Target: Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 67.5 per 100,000 females

Evidence-based Practices

As part of the Healthy Alaskans 2020 health improvement process, groups of Alaskan subject matter experts met over a period of months in a rigorous review process to identify and prioritize strategies to address the 25 health priorities. Public health partners around the state are aligning work around these approaches adapted to Alaska's unique needs. Below are the strategies identified for enhancing adolescent support systems.

Strategy 1:
Build community capacity for prevention.

Evidence Base:
The standard for domestic violence and sexual assault community-based prevention work in Alaska is based on the prevention model developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Working with communities to build their capacity to support the work of prevention is the first step towards building comprehensive programming. Comprehensive programming coordinates strategies across multiple settings and populations within each community. Coordinated programming that includes multiple types of activities across multiple settings and populations is most effective in changing the behaviors, beliefs, and norms that impact the incidence of domestic and sexual violence.

Sources:
Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancement and Leadership Through Alliances (DELTA):
http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/DELTA/index.html?s_cid=cd_281
CDC Prevention Strategies:
http://www.cdc.gov/prc/prevention-strategies/index.htm
ANDVSA Pathways Statewide Prevention:
http://www.andvsa.org/pathways-statewide-prevention/
Sabol WJ, Coulton CJ, Korbin JE. Building Community Capacity for Violence Prevention. J Interpers Violence. 2004; 19(3): 322-340.
Chavis DM. Building community capacity to prevent violence through coalitions and partnerships. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 1995; 6(2): 234-245.

Strategy 2:*
Promote values and beliefs that reinforce safe and healthy relationships.

Evidence Base:
This strategy emerges from the social norms approach where inaccurate perceptions about norms, values, beliefs, and risk and protective factors are corrected to facilitate health promotion and violence prevention. Social norms interventions have been successfully used by other prevention efforts (e.g., obesity prevention, binge drinking, and tobacco cessation). Research is starting to show positive impacts on violence prevention.

Strategy 3:*
Develop plans and approaches for early interventions with juveniles who commit acts of sexual abuse or act out sexually in inappropriate ways.

Evidence Base:
Few interventions are available for juveniles who commit acts of sexual abuse or act out sexually in inappropriate ways. Developing and implementing early interventions is important because research shows "more than half of adult sex offenders began perpetration as juveniles" (Veneziano & Veneziano, 2002:248), the best intervention methods are those that are implemented as early as possible (Vizard, 2013), and early intervention methods (such as cognitive behavioral treatment) can reduce future perpetration (St. Armand, Bard, & Silovsky, 2008).

* Sources for Strategy 2 and Strategy 3 can be found at http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/EBS/HA2020_EBS12_Rape.pdf

Available Services

Statewide 24-hour Standing Together Against Rape: Anchorage Crisis Line 907-276-7273; Statewide Crisis Line 1-800-478-8999
http://www.staralaska.com/



Related Indicators

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicator Profiles:


Related Risk Factors Indicator Profiles:


Related Health Status Outcomes Indicator Profiles:




Graphical Data Views

Rate of rape per 100,000 population, all Alaskans and U.S., 2013-2020

::chart - missing::

Alaska Comparisons Year
Record Count: 2
All Alaskans 2013 125.4
U.S. 2013 34.4

Data Notes

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 67.5 per 100,000 females for "forcible rape". A comprehensive target for the current definition of rape is being developed.

The Uniform Crime Reporting Program provides statistics based on data contributed by local, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies. Caution should be used when comparing statistics from different jurisdictions, and consideration should be given to the various variables that affect crime and law enforcement's response in a given jurisdiction. In December 2011, the UCR Program changed its definition of rape: "Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim." However, forcible rape statistics are reported according to the historical definition (UCR Handbook 2004, Forcible Rape Definition: "The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will"). By definition, sexual attacks on males were excluded from the forcible rape category and were classified as assaults or other sex offenses depending on the nature of the crime and the extent of injury.   In December 2011, the Uniform Crime Reporting Program's definition of rape became: "Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim."

This definition includes any gender of victim or perpetrator. Sexual penetration means the penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person. This definition also includes instances in which the victim is incapable of giving consent because of temporary or permanent mental or physical incapacity (including due to the influence of drugs or alcohol) or because of age. Physical resistance is not required on the part of the victim to demonstrate lack of consent.

Proponents of the new definition and omission of the term "forcible" say that the changes broaden the scope of the previously narrow definitions by capturing gender neutrality, the penetration of any bodily orifice, penetration by any object or body part, and offenses in which physical force is not involved. Now instances in which offenders use drugs or alcohol on victims who know them, or offenders who sodomize victims of the same gender will be counted as rape for statistical purposes.

Data Sources

UCR Uniform Crime Reporting Online Data Tool, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice (www.ucrdatatool.gov) 1


Rate of forcible rape per 100,000 female population, all Alaskans and U.S., 2000-2020

::chart - missing::

Alaska Comparisons Year Rate of forcible rape per 100,000 females
Record Count: 36
All Alaskans 2000 79.3
All Alaskans 2001 79.1
All Alaskans 2002 79.7
All Alaskans 2003 93.3
All Alaskans 2004 84.8
All Alaskans 2005 81.1
All Alaskans 2006 76.4
All Alaskans 2007 79.7
All Alaskans 2008 65.1
All Alaskans 2009 73.4
All Alaskans 2010 74.6
All Alaskans 2011 60.2
All Alaskans 2012 79.8
All Alaskans 2013 87.6
U.S. 2000 32.0
U.S. 2001 31.8
U.S. 2002 33.1
U.S. 2003 32.3
U.S. 2004 32.4
U.S. 2005 31.8
U.S. 2006 31.6
U.S. 2007 30.6
U.S. 2008 29.8
U.S. 2009 29.1
U.S. 2010 27.7
U.S. 2011 27.0
U.S. 2012 27.1
U.S. 2013 25.2
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2013 67.5
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2014 67.5
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2015 67.5
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2016 67.5
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2017 67.5
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2018 67.5
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2019 67.5
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2020 67.5

Data Notes

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 67.5 per 100,000 females for "forcible rape". A comprehensive target for the current definition of rape is being developed.

The Uniform Crime Reporting Program provides statistics based on data contributed by local, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies. Caution should be used when comparing statistics from different jurisdictions, and consideration should be given to the various variables that affect crime and law enforcement's response in a given jurisdiction. In December 2011, the UCR Program changed its definition of rape: "Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim." However, forcible rape statistics are reported according to the historical definition (UCR Handbook 2004, Forcible Rape Definition: "The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will"). By definition, sexual attacks on males were excluded from the forcible rape category and were classified as assaults or other sex offenses depending on the nature of the crime and the extent of injury.   Previously defined as "forcible rape" or "the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will."

Although statistics according to this definition are maintained for trends, rape has been defined since December 2011 as "Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim." Data according to the new definition became available starting for 2013.

Numerator: Number of reported rapes of females.

Denominator: Mid-year resident female population for the calendar year, then converted to a rate per 100,000.

Data Sources

UCR Uniform Crime Reporting Online Data Tool, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice (www.ucrdatatool.gov) 1

References and Community Resources

Sexual violence resources and information can be found on the following websites:


National Sexual Violence Resource Center
http://www.nsvrc.org

Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network
http://www.rainn.org

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

Page Content Updated On 02/02/2015, Published on 02/02/2015
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: "Retrieved Sun, 24 May 2015 17:06:48 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov".

Content updated: Mon, 2 Feb 2015 08:10:45 AKST