Complete Indicator Profile of Poverty - All Persons At Or Above Poverty Threshold (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 24)
DefinitionThe percentage of persons whose income is at or above the federal poverty thresholds as defined annually by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
The 125% poverty threshold is used for all Alaskans and Alaska Natives. The 100% poverty threshold is used by the U.S. comparison.
NumeratorEstimated number of persons whose income is at or above the federal poverty thresholds (125% for Alaskans and 100% for U.S. comparison) as defined by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
DenominatorMid-year resident population in calendar year.
Why Is This Important?Income, education, and financial resources are considered key social determinants of health. The lack of such resources limits individuals' ability to obtain health insurance, pay for medical care, afford healthy food, safe housing, and access to other basic goods. Children in poverty face greater morbidity and mortality due to greater risk of accidental injury, lack of health care access, and poor educational achievement. Early (or prenatal) poverty may result in development damage. Level of educational attainment influences employment opportunities and income, which in turn impact other social determinants of health, including access to health care. Education can have multigenerational implications that make it an important measure for the health of future generations.
Healthy People Objective SDOH-3.1:Proportion of persons living in poverty
U.S. Target: Not applicable
Other ObjectivesHealthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 90.0% above 125% federal poverty threshold.
What Is Being Done?Health care "safety net" programs, such as Medicaid, CHIP, and the Primary Care Network (PCN) provide some relief to those who are eligible. Alaska's community health centers also fill a critical niche in providing high-quality health care services to Alaskans of any income level.
Programs such as Head Start and those that provide assistance linking people with jobs aim to reduce poverty by increasing social functioning and self-sufficiency. Other programs, such as minimum wage requirements, food stamps, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), and government subsidized health insurance and child care, provide assistance to families needing additional support.
Health Care System FactorsHealth status and access to health care services is strongly related to income and poverty.
Related Health Care System Factors Indicator Profiles:
Related Risk Factors Indicator Profiles:
Related Health Status Outcomes Indicator Profiles:
Graphical Data Views
Percentage of persons living above poverty thresholds, all Alaskans, Alaska Natives, and U.S., 2005-2020
Data from http://www.census.gov/cps/data/cpstablecreator.html. U.S. data presented at 100% of poverty thresholds. All Alaskans and Alaska Natives (alone and in combination) presented at 125% of poverty thresholds.
Data NotesHealthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 90.0% above 125% federal poverty threshold.
** Data Not Available
Population in poverty is determined by poverty thresholds (125% for Alaskans and 100% for U.S. comparison).
The Census Bureau reports poverty data from several major household surveys and programs. The Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) is the source of official national poverty estimates. The American Community Survey (ACS) provides single and multi-year estimates for smaller areas.
U.S. Estimates are based on income below 100% of the federal poverty level for the nation. The U.S. Census Bureau uses a set of income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine the "ratio of income to poverty threshold." The official poverty thresholds are updated for inflation using the Consumer Price Index, but they do not vary geographically except that the Department of Health and Human Services acknowledges high cost of living in Alaska and Hawaii with an adjustment called the "poverty guidelines" which are applied to programmatic eligibility criteria. The poverty definition uses money income before taxes and does not include capital gains, subsistence resources, or non-cash benefits (such as public housing, Medicaid, and food stamps). Historically, analyses of the monetary value of subsistence foods (documented when opportunity allowed by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game) has been found to be lower in poorer communities than in better-off communities, and not so substantial that it would alter the ranking of communities with regard to per capita "income" if it were taken into account.
Poverty status is determined by comparing annual income to a set of dollar values called thresholds that vary by family size, number of children, and age of householder. If a family's before tax money income is less than the dollar value of their threshold, then that family and every individual in it are considered to be in poverty. For people not living in families, poverty status is determined by comparing the individual's income to his or her threshold.
The poverty thresholds are updated annually to allow for changes in the cost of living using the Consumer Price Index (CPI-U). They do not vary geographically.
Data SourcesUSBC U.S. Bureau of the Census 1
More Resources and LinksAlaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:
Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:
Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:
Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:
Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.
For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.
Page Content Updated On 10/28/2014, Published on 10/28/2014