Complete Indicator Profile - Obesity - Adolescents (Grades 9-12) (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 5Aii)

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State of Alaska

Complete Indicator Profile of Obesity - Adolescents (Grades 9-12) (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 5Aii)

Definition

Percentage of students in grades 9-12 with a body mass index (BMI) at or above the sex- and age-specific 95th percentile based on the CDC Growth Charts. Obesity is determined by calculating the individual's body mass index (BMI) and comparing it to age and sex standardized growth charts distributed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adolescents are considered obese if their BMI is greater than the 95th percentile for BMI.

Numerator

Weighted number of students in grades 9-12 with a body mass index (BMI) at or above the sex- and age-specific 95th percentile based on the CDC Growth Charts.

Denominator

Weighted number of students in grades 9-12 with complete and valid measurements for height and weight.

Why Is This Important?

Overweight and obesity affect a large proportion of the Alaska population and there has been an increase in the number of obese persons over the last decade. Many diseases and adverse health outcomes are associated with overweight and obesity, including high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, respiratory problems, and some types of cancer. In addition to genetic factors, an unhealthy diet and a lack of physical activity are both key contributors to rising obesity rates. It has been projected that, due to obesity, today's children may be the first generation to have a shorter life expectancy than their parents.

Healthy People Objective NWS-10.3:

Reduce the proportion of children and adolescents who are considered obese: Adolescents aged 12 to 19 years
U.S. Target: 16.1 percent
State Target: Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 10.0%

Other Objectives

The Healthy Alaskans 2010 objective of 5% for both genders was not met.

What Is Being Done?

In collaboration with partners statewide, the Obesity Prevention and Control Program (the Program) provides professional development opportunities and technical assistance to school teachers and staff on evidence-based obesity prevention strategies appropriate for the school environment.

The program supports quality school-based physical education. With the Department of Education, the program recently helped develop Alaska Physical Education Standards which were adopted by the State Board of Education in July 2010. The program co-hosts the "Moving into Action: Combating Childhood Obesity" training for school nurse, health and PE teachers. The program co-hosted the PE Standards and Assessment training for PE teachers. Program staff encourages active transportation by helping coordinate Bike to Work Day and by fulfilling committee positions on the Anchorage.

The program facilitates a food policy council. The goal of the food policy council is to increase fruit and vegetable access, availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables.

The program also provides important surveillance data and publishes reports on the behaviors and risk factors that contribute to obesity to help community coalitions and partners identify and track health problems, and evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention efforts.

Evidence-based Practices

As part of the Healthy Alaskans 2020 health improvement process, groups of Alaskan subject matter experts met over a period of months in a rigorous review process to identify and prioritize strategies to address the 25 health priorities. Public health partners around the state are aligning work around these approaches adapted to Alaska's unique needs.

Strategy 1:
Implement a comprehensive social marketing campaign promoting nutrition and physical activity. Choose campaign topics strategically; examples include limiting sugary drinks and the importance of family meals.

Evidence Base:
Citing The Community Guide and other reviews, the CDC recommends community-wide campaigns as effective in increasing physical activity, a contributing factor to maintaining a healthy weight.

Sources:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Increasing physical activity: A report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. MMWR. 2001; 50 (RR-18): 1-16.
The Community Guide: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/index.html
Kahn EB, Ramsey LT, Brownson RC, et al. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2002; 22(4s): 73-107.

Strategy 2:
Increase the number of breastfeeding-friendly maternity facilities.

Evidence Base:
A systematic review from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) concluded that infants who are not breastfed are more likely than breastfed infants to experience a number of poor health outcomes, including obesity (Ip et al., 2007). A Cochrane review of studies found that one effective approach for increasing breastfeeding initiation and duration rates is through support for institutional changes in maternity care practices (Fairbank et al., 2000). Specifically, the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative has been demonstrated to lead to improved breastfeeding rates (Philipp et al., 2001).

Sources:
Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, et al. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. Evid Rep Technol Assess. 2007; (153): 1-186.
Fairbank L, O'Meara S, Renfrew MJ, Woolridge M, Sowden AJ, Lister Sharp D. A systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to promote the initiation of breastfeeding. Health Technol Assess. 2000; 4(25):1-171.
Philipp BL, Merewood A, Miller LW, et al. Baby-friendly hospital initiative improves breastfeeding initiation rates in a US hospital setting. Pediatrics. 2001; 108(3):677-681.

Strategy 3:
Adopt and implement new school physical activity and nutrition policies, also known as "wellness policies".

Evidence Base:
Many of the evidence-based strategies to address childhood obesity (such as promoting quality PE and health education, and establishing a Safe Routes to School program) depend on the support of schools, communities, and parents to implement. Therefore a strategy recommended by the CDC, US DHHS and the IOM is to support the adoption and implementation of school physical activity and nutrition policies (also known as "wellness policies") by school districts.

Sources:
CDC School Health Guidelines:
http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/npao/strategies.htm
Institute of Medicine. Progress in preventing childhood obesity: How do we measure up? Koplan JP, Liverman CT, Kraak VI, Wisham, SL editors. Washington: National Academies Press; 2007.
US Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General's Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General, January 2010.
USDA Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 SEC. 204 Local School Wellness Policy Implementation: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-111publ296/pdf/PLAW-111publ296.pdf

Available Services

Additional information on current efforts to prevent obesity in Alaska: http://www.hss.state.ak.us/dph/chronic/obesity/.



Related Indicators

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicator Profiles:


Related Health Care System Factors Indicator Profiles:


Related Risk Factors Indicator Profiles:


Related Health Status Outcomes Indicator Profiles:




Graphical Data Views

Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were obese, all Alaskans, Alaska Natives, and U.S., 2001-2019

::chart - missing::

Alaska Comparisons Year Percentage of adolescents Lower Limit Upper Limit
Record Count: 25
All Alaskans 2001 **
All Alaskans 2003 11.0% 8.9% 13.6%
All Alaskans 2005 **
All Alaskans 2007 11.1% 9.1% 13.5%
All Alaskans 2009 11.8% 9.9% 14.0%
All Alaskans 2011 11.5% 9.6% 13.7%
All Alaskans 2013 12.4% 10.5% 14.6%
Alaska Natives 2001 **
Alaska Natives 2003 13.7% 8.3% 21.6%
Alaska Natives 2005 **
Alaska Natives 2007 13.4% 8.6% 20.3%
Alaska Natives 2009 11.6% 8.9% 15.0%
Alaska Natives 2011 14.8% 10.8% 20.0%
Alaska Natives 2013 16.0% 11.5% 21.9%
U.S. 2001 10.5% 9.5% 11.5%
U.S. 2003 12.0% 10.7% 13.4%
U.S. 2005 13.0% 12.1% 13.9%
U.S. 2007 12.8% 11.8% 13.9%
U.S. 2009 11.8% 10.8% 13.0%
U.S. 2011 13.0% 11.7% 14.4%
U.S. 2013 13.7% 12.6% 14.9%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2013 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2015 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2017 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2019 10.0%

Data Notes

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 10.0%.   ** Data not available.

Traditional high schools are public high schools that are distinct from correspondence schools, alternative high schools, which serve students at risk of not graduating, and students enrolled in high school in correctional facilities. Healthy Alaskans 2020 goals were established using results from traditional high school students.

Data Sources

  • Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, School Health and YRBS Program
  • Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion



Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were obese, by sex, all Alaskans, 2011-2020

::chart - missing::

HA: Males vs. Females Year Percentage of adolescents Lower Limit Upper Limit
Record Count: 12
Males 2011 14.0% 11.0% 17.5%
Males 2013 13.4% 10.8% 16.5%
Females 2011 8.8% 6.7% 11.6%
Females 2013 11.4% 9.0% 14.3%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2013 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2014 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2015 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2016 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2017 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2018 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2019 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2020 10.0%

Data Notes

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 10.0%



Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were obese, by age, all Alaskans, 2011-2020

::chart - missing::

HA: Adolescent Age Groups Year Percentage of adolescents Lower Limit Upper Limit
Record Count: 18
14 or Younger 2011 13.6% 8.6% 20.9%
14 or Younger 2013 12.2% 8.0% 18.1%
15 2011 14.1% 10.5% 18.6%
15 2013 12.4% 9.1% 16.8%
16 2011 12.8% 9.2% 17.6%
16 2013 12.1% 8.9% 16.3%
17 2011 8.8% 5.2% 14.5%
17 2013 12.0% 8.2% 17.1%
18 or Older 2011 7.0% 3.2% 14.7%
18 or Older 2013 13.8% 9.7% 19.4%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2013 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2014 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2015 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2016 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2017 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2018 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2019 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2020 10.0%

Data Notes

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 10.0%



Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were obese, by race, all Alaskans, 2011-2020

::chart - missing::

HA: Race: white, AK Native, other Year Percentage of adolescents Lower Limit Upper Limit
Record Count: 14
white 2011 9.9% 7.9% 12.4%
white 2013 9.6% 7.5% 12.3%
Alaska Native 2011 14.8% 10.8% 20.0%
Alaska Native 2013 16.0% 11.7% 21.7%
other races 2011 11.1% 7.8% 15.6%
other races 2013 14.4% 10.7% 19.1%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2013 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2014 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2015 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2016 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2017 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2018 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2019 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2020 10.0%

Data Notes

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 10.0%



Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were obese, by Hispanic, all Alaskans, 2011-2020

::chart - missing::

HA: Ethnicity - Hispanic/Latino Year Percentage of Adolescents Lower Limit Upper Limit
Record Count: 12
Hispanic/Latino 2011 13.0% 8.8% 18.9%
Hispanic/Latino 2013 15.5% 9.4% 24.4%
Not Hispanic/Latino 2011 11.4% 9.6% 13.5%
Not Hispanic/Latino 2013 12.1% 10.1% 14.4%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2013 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2014 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2015 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2016 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2017 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2018 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2019 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2020 10.0%

Data Notes

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 10.0%



Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were obese, by grade level, all Alaskans, 2011-2020

::chart - missing::

HA: Grade Level Year Percentage of adolescents Lower Limit Upper Limit
Record Count: 16
9th 2011 12.1% 8.7% 16.6%
9th 2013 12.4% 9.0% 16.9%
10th 2011 14.0% 10.4% 18.6%
10th 2013 13.3% 9.9% 17.6%
11th 2011 10.4% 6.5% 16.4%
11th 2013 13.1% 9.5% 17.8%
12th 2011 9.0% 5.9% 13.6%
12th 2013 10.6% 7.4% 14.9%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2013 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2014 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2015 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2016 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2017 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2018 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2019 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2020 10.0%

Data Notes

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 10.0%



Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were obese, by academic performance, all Alaskans, 2011-2020

::chart - missing::

HA: Academic Performance Year Percentage of adolescents Lower Limit Upper Limit
Record Count: 12
Mostly As and Bs 2011 9.5% 7.5% 11.9%
Mostly As and Bs 2013 10.6% 8.5% 13.2%
Not mostly As and Bs 2011 15.6% 11.6% 20.8%
Not mostly As and Bs 2013 16.6% 12.6% 21.7%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2013 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2014 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2015 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2016 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2017 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2018 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2019 10.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal 2020 10.0%

Data Notes

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 10.0%


References and Community Resources

Additional information on current efforts to prevent overweight and obesity in Alaska is available at: http://www.hss.state.ak.us/dph/chronic/obesity/.

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

Page Content Updated On 06/30/2015, Published on 08/07/2015
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: "Retrieved Tue, 01 September 2015 18:21:30 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov".

Content updated: Fri, 7 Aug 2015 10:00:12 AKDT