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State of Alaska

Complete Health Indicator Report of Firearm-Related Mortality Rate

Definition

Rate of age-adjusted firearm-related mortality is defined as deaths attributed to firearms as the underlying cause of death on the death certificate per 100,000 population. The following is the list of firearm-related ICD-10 codes: U01.4, W32-W34, X72-X74, X93-X95, Y22-Y24, and Y35.0.

Numerator

Number of firearm-related deaths as the underlying cause of death on the death certificate in the resident population for a specific time period.

Denominator

Mid-year resident population for a specific time period.

Data Interpretation Issues

[http://live.laborstats.alaska.gov/pop/index.cfm Alaska population estimates] provided by the State Demographer in the [http://laborstats.alaska.gov/ Research and Analysis Section] of the [http://labor.alaska.gov/ Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development]. Causes of death attributable to firearm mortality include ICD-10 codes *U01.4, Terrorism involving firearms (homicide); W32-W34, Accidental discharge of firearms; X72-X74, Intentional self-harm (suicide) by discharge of firearms; X93-X95, Assault (homicide) by discharge of firearms; Y22-Y24, Discharge of firearms, undetermined intent; and Y35.0, Legal intervention involving firearm discharge. Deaths from injury by firearms exclude deaths due to explosives and other causes indirectly related to firearms.^1^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu JQ, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2014. National vital statistics reports; vol 65 no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2016. [http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr65/nvsr65_04.pdf] Accessed October 4, 2016. }}

Why Is This Important?

Firearm-related deaths include deaths due to accidental discharge of a firearm and deaths due to intentional discharge (suicide or homicide). With 177 deaths in 2017, firearm-related deaths would have been the seventh leading cause of death in Alaska if the grouping was included in the tabulation list used to compute the leading causes of death.^2^ In 2017, there were 6,541 years of potential life lost due to firearm-related deaths, with 37.0 years lost prematurely for each death, on average.^2^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 2. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Health Analytics and Vital Records Section. Alaska Vital Statistics 2017 Annual Report. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Documents/PDFs/VitalStatistics_Annualreport_2017.pdf] Accessed December 31, 2018. }}

Healthy People Objective: Reduce firearm-related deaths

U.S. Target: 9.2 deaths per 100,000 population

How Are We Doing?

In 2017, there were 177 firearm-related deaths in Alaska, resulting in an age-adjusted rate of 24.4 per 100,000. There were 51 firearm-related deaths of Alaska Native people, resulting in mortality rate of 40.7 per 100,000. From 2008 to 2017, the age-adjusted rate of firearm-related deaths has increased 20.2%. The majority of this increase is due to a doubling in the rate of homicides between 2011 and 2017, 2.5 to 5.6. Males were more than 4-times more likely to die of firearm-related causes than females in 2017. Alaskans residing in the northern (39.6 per 100,000) and southwest (32.1 per 100,000) regions had statistically higher rates of firearm-related mortality than the remainder of the state for the 5-year average from 2013-2017. Firearm storage practices are an important component in preventing both accidental and suicide firearm-related mortality.^3^ In 2007 (the most recent year firearm questions were asked in Alaska on the [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)], over 10% of adults (18+) had loaded and unlocked firearms in their households. Only 5.4% of Alaska Native adults kept loaded and unlocked firearms compared to 13.1% of white adults in 2007.[[br]][[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 3. Okoro CA, Nelson DE, Mercy JA, Balluz LS, et al. Prevalence of Household Firearms and Firearm-Storage Practices in the 50 States and the District of Columbia: Findings From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2002. Pediatrics 2005;116:e370-e376. [www.pediatrics.org/cgi/doi/ 10.1542/peds.2005-0300] Accessed October 20, 2016. }}

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

The firearm-related mortality rate was 11.8 per 100,000 for the U.S. in 2016 (the most recent year for which national data were available).^4^ In contrast, the firearm-related mortality rate was 23.4 per 100,000 for all Alaskans and 37.5 per 100,000 for Alaska Native people in 2016.[[br]] [[br]] {{class .SmallerFont 4. Xu J, Murphy SL, et. al. Deaths: Final data for 2016. National Vital Statistics Reports. 66(6) July 26, 2018. [https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr67/nvsr67_05.pdf]. Accessed December 31, 2018.}}

What Is Being Done?

Two items that can reduce firearm-related mortality are safe storage of firearms and preventing accidental shootings. Both firearm prevalence and questionable storage practices (i.e., storing firearms loaded and unlocked) are associated with higher rates of unintentional firearm deaths.^5^ The U.S. General Accounting Office has estimated that 31% of unintentional deaths caused by firearms might be prevented by the addition of two devices: a child-proof safety lock (8%) and a loading indicator (23%).^6^ The Alaska Division of Public Health, Section of Women's, Children's and Family Health's Maternal Child Death Review (MCDR) program collects fatality data for every child aged 17 and under, and for women who have been pregnant in the past year. For firearm-related fatalities, the data include information on gun ownership, and whether the gun(s) involved in a death were stored locked and/or loaded. The goal of the MCDR is to analyze and provide information on maternal, infant and child deaths in order to reduce future fatalities. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game requires hunter education, including firearm safety, to hunt in specified areas of Alaska for those born after January 1, 1986 and aged 16 years and older; or hunt under the direct supervision of a licensed hunter who is 16 years or older and who has completed hunter education or who was born on or before January 1, 1986. [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallFont 5. Matthew Miller, Deborah Azrael & David Hemenway. Firearm Availability and Unintentional Firearm Deaths, 33 Accident Analysis & Prevention 477 (July 2001). 6. U.S. General Accounting Office. Accidental Shootings: Many Deaths and Injuries Caused by Firearms Could Be Prevented. 17 Mar. 1991. [http://161.203.16.4/d20t9/143619.pdf]. Accessed October 4, 2016. }}


Related Indicators

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Age-adjusted rate of firearm-related mortality per 100,000 population, all Alaskans, Alaska Natives, and U.S., 2000-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Geog: Alaska vs. U.S.YearFirearm-related mortality rate per 100,000 (Age-adjusted)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 53
All Alaskans200017.616.418.8114626,932
All Alaskans200115.114.016.196632,716
All Alaskans200219.718.520.9125641,729
All Alaskans200319.718.520.9121649,466
All Alaskans200417.216.118.4115659,653
All Alaskans200517.216.018.3115667,146
All Alaskans200616.915.918.0109674,583
All Alaskans200718.217.119.3120680,169
All Alaskans200820.319.121.5138686,818
All Alaskans200914.613.615.6102697,828
All Alaskans201020.118.921.3142710,231
All Alaskans201117.516.418.6126723,133
All Alaskans201217.516.418.5128731,630
All Alaskans201320.018.821.1144736,616
All Alaskans201419.218.020.3144737,354
All Alaskans201523.622.324.9176737,183
All Alaskans201623.422.124.8174739,828
All Alaskans201724.423.125.7177737,080
Alaska Natives200034.930.839.140107,929
Alaska Natives200132.128.236.135108,430
Alaska Natives200233.929.937.940109,873
Alaska Natives200331.627.835.537111,314
Alaska Natives200429.625.733.433112,356
Alaska Natives200539.234.843.543113,773
Alaska Natives200624.721.328.028114,977
Alaska Natives200724.321.027.630115,421
Alaska Natives200830.226.434.036115,969
Alaska Natives200927.123.730.633117,974
Alaska Natives201032.428.636.241120,428
Alaska Natives201131.427.635.239122,441
Alaska Natives201225.121.728.531123,605
Alaska Natives201333.329.537.242124,911
Alaska Natives201425.922.429.332126,090
Alaska Natives201534.630.938.246127,155
Alaska Natives201637.533.441.649127,545
Alaska Natives201740.736.644.851127,656
U.S.20008.920,995233,069,912
U.S.20019.121,750235,289,999
U.S.20029.121,980236,923,006
U.S.20039.021,787238,437,083
U.S.20048.821,493240,099,486
U.S.20058.922,021241,741,451
U.S.20068.721,753243,492,954
U.S.20078.922,308245,220,726
U.S.20089.123,118246,950,308
U.S.20099.023,216248,530,048
U.S.20109.123,552249,686,878
U.S.20119.224,077251,441,744
U.S.20129.424,726252,622,989
U.S.20139.425,049253,802,432
U.S.201410.333,559
U.S.201511.136,252
U.S.201611.838,658

Data Notes

Data are age adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population.   Alaska data from 2008 through 2015 received May 2, 2017, on SR17061.xlsx.

Data Sources

  • [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Health Analytics and Vital Records Section (HAVRS)], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services
  • National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Age-adjusted rate of firearm-related mortality per 100,000 population, by mechanism of firearm deaths, all Alaskans, 2011-2017

::chart - missing::

Firearm MortalityYearRates per 100,000 population (age-adjusted)NoteNumer- ator
Record Count: 28
Firearm Mortality, Total201117.5126
Firearm Mortality, Total201217.8132
Firearm Mortality, Total201319.9144
Firearm Mortality, Total201419.1144
Firearm Mortality, Total201523.6176
Firearm Mortality, Total201623.4174
Firearm Mortality, Total201724.4177
Firearm Mortality, unintentional2011**Data suppressed1
Firearm Mortality, unintentional20120.8Statitically unreliable6
Firearm Mortality, unintentional2013**Data suppressed2
Firearm Mortality, unintentional2014**Data suppressed3
Firearm Mortality, unintentional2015**Data suppressed5
Firearm Mortality, unintentional2016**Data suppressed5
Firearm Mortality, unintentional2017**Data suppressed4
Firearm Mortality, homicide20112.520
Firearm Mortality, homicide20122.2Statistically unreliable17
Firearm Mortality, homicide20132.4Statistically unreliable19
Firearm Mortality, homicide20142.420
Firearm Mortality, homicide20155.442
Firearm Mortality, homicide20166.145
Firearm Mortality, homicide20175.644
Firearm Mortality, suicide201113.999
Firearm Mortality, suicide201213.398
Firearm Mortality, suicide201316.9120
Firearm Mortality, suicide201415.4115
Firearm Mortality, suicide201516.4122
Firearm Mortality, suicide201613.7110
Firearm Mortality, suicide201715.0118

Data Notes

Data are age adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population.   Source: Alaska Health Analytics & Vital Records. Last updated Jan 2017. Sum of accidental, homicide, and suicide firearm mortality may equal total firearm mortality due to unknown intent.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Health Analytics and Vital Records Section (HAVRS)], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services


Age-adjusted rate of firearm-related mortality per 100,000 population, by sex, all Alaskans, 2000-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Males vs. FemalesYearFirearm-related mortality rate per 100,000 (Age-adjusted)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 36
Male200029.527.431.799324,111
Male200125.123.127.082327,207
Male200228.726.730.792331,873
Male200333.831.736.0103335,905
Male200428.826.830.9101341,164
Male200528.726.630.797345,077
Male200630.728.732.796349,145
Male200733.431.335.5109352,090
Male200835.833.538.0124355,560
Male200924.322.526.186361,200
Male201032.130.134.2116369,628
Male201128.326.430.2102375,665
Male201230.028.032.0113378,944
Male201332.230.134.2119380,453
Male201431.729.633.7122381,499
Male201535.533.437.7139381,888
Male201636.133.938.4140382,143
Male201739.637.341.9149379,423
Female20005.14.26.016302,821
Female20014.33.55.214305,509
Female200210.89.412.134309,856
Female20035.54.56.418313,561
Female20045.04.15.915318,489
Female20055.34.46.318322,069
Female20063.83.04.613325,438
Female20073.32.64.011328,079
Female20085.14.26.117331,258
Female20095.14.26.018336,628
Female20107.56.58.527340,603
Female20116.55.57.524347,221
Female20125.14.25.918352,294
Female20137.16.18.125355,406
Female20146.05.06.922355,319
Female201510.79.411.937355,295
Female20169.68.410.834357,685
Female20178.17.09.128357,657

Data Notes

Data are age adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population.   ** = Data not available due to fewer than 20 responses in the numerator. Source: Alaska Health Analytics & Vital Records. Last updated Jan 2017.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Health Analytics and Vital Records Section (HAVRS)], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services


Age-adjusted rate of firearm-related mortality per 100,000 population, by race, all Alaskans, 2011-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Race: White, AK Native, OtherYearRate per 100,000 population (age-adjuted)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 24
White201017.716.519.091507,467
White201114.913.716.178513,794
White201216.014.817.285517,796
White201318.517.219.894518,821
White201418.417.119.897517,447
White201521.219.722.6111515,431
White201619.518.120.9100514,814
White201719.017.620.398510,364
Alaska Native people201032.428.636.241120,428
Alaska Native people201131.427.635.239122,441
Alaska Native people201225.121.728.531123,605
Alaska Native people201333.329.537.242124,911
Alaska Native people201425.922.429.332126,090
Alaska Native people201534.630.938.246127,155
Alaska Native people201637.533.441.649127,545
Alaska Native people201740.736.644.851127,656
Other races201013.510.416.511
Other races20117.55.59.57
Other races201214.511.617.314
Other races20136.95.08.97
Other races201411.08.813.312
Other races201515.312.718.017
Other races201619.516.322.621
Other races201722.719.226.224

Data Notes

Data are age adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population.   Source: Alaska Health Analytics & Vital Records. Last updated Jan 2017.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Health Analytics and Vital Records Section (HAVRS)], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services


Rate of firearm-related mortality per 100,000 population (Age-specific rate), by age, all Alaskans, 2003-2017 (15-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Age GroupFirearm-related mortality rate per 100,000 (Crude rate)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 10
0-41.50.72.412782,335
5-142.92.03.7451,554,089
15-2433.430.636.35211,557,937
25-3430.027.332.84591,528,863
35-4421.218.823.63061,444,802
45-5419.817.622.03141,586,557
55-6417.315.019.62151,243,945
65-7417.814.321.3100562,647
75-8420.714.826.548232,321
85+28.916.541.22172,766

Data Notes

Data are age adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population.


Rate of firearm-related mortality per 100,000 population, by Alaska Economic Regions, all Alaskans, 2013-2017 (5-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Firearm-related mortality rate per 100,000 (Age-adjusted)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 8
Anchorage20.019.220.83081,496,296
Gulf Coast21.019.422.787404,186
Interior23.822.425.3139565,600
Mat-Su20.819.322.399500,652
Northern39.635.743.555138,410
Southeast14.513.015.954369,928
Southwest32.129.234.970211,866
Statewide22.121.522.68153,686,938

Firearm-related mortality rate per 100,000 population, by Alaska Economic region, 2009-2013 (5-year average)

supplemental image
Rates are age-adjusted for U.S. 2000 standard million population.


Data Notes

Data are age adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Health Analytics and Vital Records Section (HAVRS)], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services


Percentage of adults with loaded and unlocked firearms in the home, by race, Alaska, 2007

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

RacePercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 2
American Indian/Alaska Native5.43.28.824507
White13.110.516.31891,609

Data Notes

Data are age adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population.   The interviewer began the firearm section of the survey by first informing the respondent that "the next three questions are about firearms. We are asking these in a health survey because of our interest in firearm-related injuries. Please include weapons such as pistols, shotguns, and rifles; but not BB guns, starter pistols, or guns that cannot fire. Include those kept in a garage, outdoor storage area, or motor vehicle." Presence of firearms in the home was assessed by asking the respondent, "Are any firearms kept in or around your home?" Firearm-storage patterns were derived from 2 questions: "Are any of these firearms now loaded?" and "Are any of these loaded firearms also unlocked? By 'unlocked' we mean you do not need a key or combination to get the gun or to fire it. We don't count a safety as a lock." The firearm module has not been asked on the Alaska BRFSS since 2007.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

References and Community Resources

'''References:''' 1. Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu JQ, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2014. National vital statistics reports; vol 65 no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2016. [http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr65/nvsr65_04.pdf] Accessed October 4, 2016. 2. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Health Analytics and Vital Records Section. Alaska Vital Statistics 2015 Annual Report. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Documents/PDFs/VitalStatistics_Annualreport_2015.pdf]. Accessed February 7, 2017. Revised with SR17061.xlsx on May 2, 2017. 3. Okoro CA, Nelson DE, Mercy JA, Balluz LS, et al. Prevalence of Household Firearms and Firearm-Storage Practices in the 50 States and the District of Columbia: Findings From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2002. Pediatrics 2005;116:e370-e376. [www.pediatrics.org/cgi/doi/ 10.1542/peds.2005-0300] Accessed October 20, 2016. 4. Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. 2009 Values Survey, Final Topline, Question e.F2, April 2009. [http://people-press.org/reports/questionnaires/513.pdf]. Accessed October 4, 2016. 5. Johnson, Renee, Tamera Coyne-Beasley, Carol Runyan. "Firearm Ownership and Storage Practices, U.S. Households, 1992-2002: A Systematic Review," American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27:2 (2007): 173-182 6. Matthew Miller, Deborah Azrael & David Hemenway. Firearm Availability and Unintentional Firearm Deaths, 33 Accident Analysis & Prevention 477 (July 2001). 7. U.S. General Accounting Office. Accidental Shootings: Many Deaths and Injuries Caused by Firearms Could Be Prevented. 17 Mar. 1991. [http://161.203.16.4/d20t9/143619.pdf]. Accessed October 4, 2016. '''Resources:''' Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Health Analytics and Vital Records Section. Alaska Vital Statistics 2015 Annual Report. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Documents/PDFs/VitalStatistics_Annualreport_2015.pdf].

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Alaska health promotion resources may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

AK-IBIS Web Citation

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AK-IBIS Indicator Citation:
"[Indicator name]. Retrieved on [insert date] from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Example:
Diabetes Prevalence. Retrieved on March 25, 2016, from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Page Content Updated On 02/13/2018, Published on 02/13/2019
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sun, 21 April 2019 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Wed, 20 Feb 2019 14:50:32 AKST
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sun, 21 April 2019 22:00:00 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Wed, 20 Feb 2019 14:50:32 AKST