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State of Alaska

Complete Health Indicator Report of Drug Use - Prescription Drug Abuse - Adolescents (Grades 9-12)

Definition

Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded one or more times on the [http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)] to the question: "During the past 30 days, how many times did you take a prescription drug (such as OxyContin, Percocet, Vicodin, codeine, Adderall, Ritalin, or Xanax) without a doctor's prescription?"

Numerator

Weighted number of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded one or more times on the YRBS to the question: "During the past 30 days, how many times did you take a prescription drug (such as OxyContin, Percocet, Vicodin, codeine, Adderall, Ritalin, or Xanax) without a doctor's prescription?"

Denominator

Weighted number of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) with complete and valid responses to the question on the YRBS.

Data Interpretation Issues

Alaska has conducted a statewide Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 1995 and biennially from 2003. Weighted data were not obtained in 2005 and therefore no statewide estimates are available for that year. A YRBS survey conducted in 1999 did not include the Anchorage School District and therefore was not considered a valid statewide estimate. No YRBS survey was conducted in Alaska in 1997 and 2001. Traditional high schools are sometimes called comprehensive high schools. They are public high schools that are distinct from alternative high schools, which serve students at risk of not graduating, charter schools, correspondence schools, and students enrolled in high school in correctional facilities. Responses are weighted to reflect youth attending public traditional high schools in Alaska. The question on current prescription drug abuse has been asked since 2011.

Why Is This Important?

Prescription drugs are the third most commonly abused category of drugs, behind alcohol and marijuana. Some prescription drugs can become addictive, especially when used in a manner inconsistent with their labeling by someone other than the patient for whom they were prescribed, or when taken in a manner or dosage other than prescribed.^1^ Of people 12 years of age and older who initiated substance abuse in 2013, about 1 in 5 started by using prescription drugs nonmedically.^2^ A significant concern is the link that has been made between heroin use and prior nonmedical use of opioid prescription drugs, especially by young users.^3^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Prescription Drugs. National Council on Alcohol and Drug Dependence website. [https://ncadd.org/learn-about-drugs/prescription-drugs]. Accessed 7/16/15. 2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. NSDUH Series H-48, HHS publication no. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD. SAMHSA, 2014. [http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUHresultsPDFWHTML2013/Web/NSDUHresults2013.pdf]. Accessed 7/16/15. 3. Cerd M, Santaella J, Marshall BD, Kim JH, Martins SS. Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use in Childhood and Early Adolescence Predicts Transitions to Heroin Use in Young Adulthood: A National Study. J Pediatr. 2015 Jun 5. pii: S0022-3476(15)00459-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.04.071. [Epub ahead of print] }}

How Are We Doing?

The rate of current prescription drug abuse among adolescents was 6.4% for all Alaska adolescents and 4.1% for Alaska Native adolescents in 2015, essentially unchanged from 2011. The rate of ever abusing prescription drugs has declined from 20.9% in 2009 to 14.6% in 2015 for all Alaska adolescents. The rates of lifetime and current use of unprescribed drugs among adolescents in Alaska are less than the comparable rates for cigarette, marijuana, and alcohol use and follow the pattern for the U.S. Lower rates of current prescription drug abuse are correlated with higher academic achievement in high schools. Among adolescents receiving mostly As and Bs, 4.8% reported current prescription drug abuse compared to 9.7% among students receiving lower grades in 2015. Prevalence rates from the YRBS are initially presented for current prescription drug abuse by all Alaska adolescents, Alaska Native adolescents, and the mean of the national YRBS. These data are followed by the rates for lifetime prescription drug abuse for the same groups. As a basis for comparison, lifetime and current use of a variety of substances are presented. Subsequent analyses display current prescription drug abuse by demographic subpopulations (i.e., sex, age, use before age 13, race/ethnicity, ethnicity, grade level, and academic achievement). Current prescription abuse prevalence by regions of Alaska are presented for the most recent time period: the 6 Alaska Economic Regions and the 10 assessment regions based upon aggregations of 20,000 population.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

Alaska adolescents have lower, but not significantly different, rates of ever abusing prescription drugs than the national average in 2015. In 2015, lifetime prescription drug abuse among adolescents was 16.8% for the U.S. compared to 14.6% for all Alaska adolescents and 13.2% for Alaska Native adolescents.

What Is Being Done?

The Alaska Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) is Alaska's solution for monitoring Schedule II-V controlled substances dispensed in Alaska. Senate Bill 196 (Alaska Statute 08.80.030(b)(11)) was signed into law on September 7, 2008, requiring the Alaska Board of Pharmacy to establish and maintain a controlled substances prescription database as provided in Alaska Statute (AS) 17.30.200 for the reporting of dispensed prescriptions for all schedule IA-VA controlled substances under state law and Schedule II-V controlled substances under federal law. This program was created to improve patient care and foster the goal of reducing misuse, abuse, and diversion of controlled substances; and to encourage cooperation and coordination among state, local, and federal agencies and other states to reduce the misuse, abuse, and diversion of controlled substances. Additionally, Alaska has hosted several Prescription Take-Back Days to encourage the safe disposal of expired and/or unused prescription drugs. Several communities across the state have established local permanent safe disposal sites.

Evidence-based Practices

Increase local prescription drug take-back programs. Collaborate with healthcare professionals to ensure safe and appropriate prescribing and dispensing practices. Create strong pain management laws. Establish dosing and best-practice guidelines and rules related to opioid use for acute, subacute, and chronic noncancer pain. Increase PDMP utilization and leverage health information technology to inform real-time decision-making. Initiate overdose education programs to mitigate risk to those currently using opioids. Increase access to medication-assisted treatment.


Related Indicators

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who reported taking a prescription drug without a prescription in the past 30 days, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2011-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 6
All Alaskans20116.9%5.6%8.6%971,312
All Alaskans20137.1%5.6%8.9%891,223
All Alaskans20156.4%5.1%8.1%981,398
Alaska Native adolescents20116.6%4.5%9.4%23303
Alaska Native adolescents20136.7%4.3%10.3%20281
Alaska Native adolescents20154.1%2.3%7.3%15352

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who reported ever taking a prescription drug without a prescription, all Alaskans, Alaska Natives, and U.S., 2009-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 12
All Alaskans200920.9%18.6%23.4%2821,363
All Alaskans201115.8%13.6%18.3%2071,304
All Alaskans201313.5%11.4%16.0%1651,225
All Alaskans201514.6%12.5%17.0%2121,388
Alaska Native adolescents200915.1%11.5%19.7%48298
Alaska Native adolescents201115.8%11.4%21.6%53302
Alaska Native adolescents201314.8%11.3%19.2%45282
Alaska Native adolescents201513.2%9.7%17.6%45350
U.S.2009**
U.S.201120.7%19.2%22.2%14,011
U.S.201317.8%15.9%19.9%13,443
U.S.201516.8%15.4%18.2%15,367

Data Notes

** = Data not available Definition: Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded one or more times on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to the question: "During your life, how many times have you taken a prescription drug (such as OxyContin, Percocet, Vicodin, codeine, Adderall, Ritalin, or Xanax) without a doctor's prescription?" Numerator: Weighted number of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded one or more times on the YRBS to the question: "During your life, how many times have you taken a prescription drug (such as OxyContin, Percocet, Vicodin, codeine, Adderall, Ritalin, or Xanax) without a doctor's prescription?" Denominator: Weight number of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) with complete and valid responses to the question on the YRBS.

Data Sources

  • [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
  • [https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)], Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) ever reporting substance use, all Alaskans, Alaska Natives, and U.S., 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Substances are sorted in order of U.S. prevalence rates for lifetime use (2015).
Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of AdolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitDenom- inator
Record Count: 30
All AlaskansHeroin2.2%1.3%3.5%1,389
All AlaskansMethamphetamines2.6%1.7%4.1%1,390
All AlaskansEcstacy4.1%3.0%5.7%1,390
All AlaskansCocaine4.6%3.3%6.4%1,391
All AlaskansInhalants6.3%5.0%7.9%1,392
All AlaskansSynthetic Marijuana7.5%6.0%9.3%1,382
All AlaskansPrescription Drugs14.6%12.5%17.1%1,388
All AlaskansCigarettes32.5%29.7%35.5%1,378
All AlaskansMarijuana38.8%35.6%42.2%1,352
All AlaskansAlcohol54.4%50.9%57.9%1,366
Alaska Native adolescentsHeroin0.8%0.5%1.3%350
Alaska Native adolescentsMethamphetamines2.7%1.3%5.5%351
Alaska Native adolescentsEcstacy1.4%0.5%3.7%351
Alaska Native adolescentsCocaine3.3%1.6%6.8%351
Alaska Native adolescentsInhalants6.0%4.2%8.5%350
Alaska Native adolescentsSynthetic Marijuana7.0%4.2%11.4%345
Alaska Native adolescentsPrescription Drugs13.2%9.7%17.6%350
Alaska Native adolescentsCigarettes52.0%47.2%56.8%345
Alaska Native adolescentsMarijuana54.7%48.4%60.8%341
Alaska Native adolescentsAlcohol49.6%41.9%57.3%341
U.S.Heroin2.1%1.5%2.8%15,424
U.S.Methamphetamines3.0%2.4%3.8%14,889
U.S.Ecstacy5.0%4.3%5.8%15,397
U.S.Cocaine5.2%4.3%6.2%15,432
U.S.Inhalants7.0%6.2%8.0%15,158
U.S.Synthetic Marijuana9.2%7.9%10.8%15,450
U.S.Prescription Drugs16.8%15.4%18.2%15,367
U.S.Cigarettes32.3%28.9%35.8%13,799
U.S.Marijuana38.6%35.5%41.8%15,157
U.S.Alcohol63.2%60.6%65.8%15,049

Data Sources

  • [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
  • [https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)], Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) reporting current substance use, all Alaskans, Alaska Natives, and U.S., 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitDenom- inator
Record Count: 12
All AlaskansPrescription Drugs6.4%5.1%8.0%1,398
All AlaskansCigarettes11.1%9.1%13.5%1,351
All AlaskansMarijuana19.0%16.8%21.4%1,387
All AlaskansAlcohol22.0%19.4%24.5%1,301
Alaska Native adolescentsPrescription Drugs4.1%2.3%7.3%352
Alaska Native adolescentsCigarettes19.7%14.6%26.1%331
Alaska Native adolescentsMarijuana26.1%20.5%32.6%350
Alaska Native adolescentsAlcohol19.2%15.1%24.1%325
U.S.Prescription Drugs**
U.S.Cigarettes10.8%9.4%12.4%14,989
U.S.Marijuana21.7%19.3%24.2%15,250
U.S.Alcohol32.8%30.4%35.2%14,114

Data Notes

** = Data not available Substances are sorted in order of U.S. prevalence rates for lifetime use (2015). Data for all Alaskans and Alaska Natives from 2015. U.S. data from 2013 pending release of 2015 data in spring 2016.

Data Sources

  • [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
  • [https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)], Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who reported taking a prescription drug without a prescription in the past 30 days, by sex, all Alaskans, 2011-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Males vs. FemalesYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 6
Males20116.8%5.0%9.2%46636
Males20137.7%5.7%10.4%45589
Males20156.6%4.9%8.9%50695
Females20117.0%5.2%9.3%49672
Females20135.9%4.0%8.5%40626
Females20155.8%4.1%8.2%45696

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who reported taking a prescription drug without a prescription in the past 30 days, by race, all Alaskans, 2011-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Race: White, AK Native, OtherYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 9
White20116.8%5.1%9.0%45653
White20135.8%3.9%8.4%34593
White20155.6%3.9%7.9%40669
Alaska Native people20116.6%4.5%9.4%23303
Alaska Native people20136.7%4.3%10.3%20281
Alaska Native people20154.1%2.3%7.3%15352
Other races20118.0%5.6%11.3%27319
Other races20138.0%5.4%11.7%27314
Other races20159.8%7.1%13.6%34322

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who reported taking a prescription drug without a prescription in the past 30 days, by ethnicity, all Alaskans, 2011-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Ethnicity - Hispanic/LatinoYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 6
Hispanic/Latino20119.6%5.7%15.6%15139
Hispanic/Latino20139.5%5.6%15.7%13115
Hispanic/Latino201512.2%7.5%19.4%16131
Not Hispanic/Latino20116.7%5.4%8.4%811,151
Not Hispanic/Latino20136.2%4.8%7.9%681,073
Not Hispanic/Latino20155.8%4.4%7.5%771,235

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who reported taking a prescription drug without a prescription in the past 30 days, by age, all Alaskans, 2011-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

YRBS age groups: <=14, 15, 16, 17, 18+YearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 15
14 years old or younger20117.9%4.9%12.5%16164
14 years old or younger20133.6%1.4%9.1%6142
14 years old or younger20155.3%2.9%9.6%10145
15 years old20115.6%3.4%8.9%21386
15 years old20139.3%6.5%13.1%33334
15 years old20154.8%3.0%7.6%20360
16 years old20117.7%5.2%11.0%28349
16 years old20135.4%3.2%9.0%16291
16 years old20156.8%4.2%10.9%27388
17 years old20118.9%5.7%13.6%24267
17 years old20138.6%5.8%12.5%23276
17 years old20156.4%3.9%10.2%22323
18 years old or older20114.1%1.7%9.6%8146
18 years old or older20136.0%3.4%10.3%11179
18 years old or older20159.1%5.3%15.3%18177

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who reported taking a prescription drug without a prescription in the past 30 days, by grade level, all Alaskans, 2011-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Grade LevelYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 12
9th20116.0%4.4%8.2%27414
9th20136.5%4.1%10.0%24342
9th20152.9%1.7%5.0%12331
10th20117.0%4.4%10.7%25347
10th20138.2%5.2%12.8%25319
10th20157.8%5.3%11.3%34424
11th20118.1%5.5%11.8%26316
11th20136.2%3.7%10.3%19283
11th20155.7%3.6%8.9%22355
12th20116.9%4.1%11.3%19228
12th20137.1%4.5%11.1%19265
12th20158.5%5.4%13.3%25275

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who reported taking a prescription drug without a prescription in the past 30 days, by academic performance, all Alaskans, 2011-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Academic PerformanceYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 6
Mostly As and Bs20114.6%3.3%6.3%40868
Mostly As and Bs20135.5%4.1%7.4%49863
Mostly As and Bs20154.8%3.6%6.5%52905
Not mostly As and Bs201111.6%8.7%15.3%56437
Not mostly As and Bs201310.9%7.8%14.9%39348
Not mostly As and Bs20159.7%7.3%12.9%45427

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in high schools (traditional, alternative, and correctional) who reported taking a prescription drug without a prescription in the past 30 days, by Behavioral Health System Regions, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 20
All AlaskansAnchorage Muncipality7.9%6.2%9.9%1331,222
All AlaskansFairbanks North Star Borough6.1%3.6%10.2%29394
All AlaskansCity and Borough of Juneau8.5%6.7%10.7%37467
All AlaskansKenai Peninsula Borough9.5%7.9%11.4%97982
All AlaskansMatanuska-Susitna Borough8.5%7.0%10.2%1321,091
All AlaskansNorthwest Region7.2%5.4%9.5%57757
All AlaskansOther Interior Region11.4%7.1%17.9%28282
All AlaskansOther Southeast Region8.7%6.8%10.9%86911
All AlaskansY-K Delta Region4.2%2.4%7.2%7155
All AlaskansSouthwest Region5.4%3.9%7.5%28469
Alaska Native adolescentsAnchorage Muncipality7.9%4.6%13.2%28228
Alaska Native adolescentsFairbanks North Star Borough**68
Alaska Native adolescentsCity and Borough of Juneau**72
Alaska Native adolescentsKenai Peninsula Borough11.6%7.7%17.1%18146
Alaska Native adolescentsMatanuska-Susitna Borough7.5%4.9%11.2%24241
Alaska Native adolescentsNorthwest Region6.7%4.9%9.1%43629
Alaska Native adolescentsOther Interior Region10.0%6.3%15.3%15159
Alaska Native adolescentsOther Southeast Region11.9%8.5%16.6%30240
Alaska Native adolescentsY-K Delta Region4.7%2.6%8.3%7142
Alaska Native adolescentsSouthwest Region4.0%2.2%6.9%7177

Data Notes

** = Data statistically unreliable or suppressed. These data are a regional compilation of YRBS surveys conducted for local school districts. They consist of both representative (weighted) and unrepresentative (unweighted) samples. The representative samples have been weighted to the sex and grade characteristics of their school district. The unrepresentative surveys have a weight of 1 to signify that the information is not extrapolated to other students. The results of the local YRBS program may not meet the statistical rigor of the statewide estimates and should be viewed with caution. However, the local YRBS program does demonstrate the existence of risk factors.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in high schools (traditional, alternative, and correctional)) who reported taking a prescription drug without a prescription in the past 30 days, by Alaska Economic Regions, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 12
All AlaskansAnchorage - Mat-Su8.0%6.7%9.6%2652,313
All AlaskansGulf Coast9.6%8.0%11.4%1301,378
All AlaskansInterior6.4%4.0%10.0%48599
All AlaskansNorthern7.2%5.4%9.5%57757
All AlaskansSoutheast8.6%7.3%10.1%1231,378
All AlaskansSouthwest3.6%2.4%5.4%11305
Alaska Native adolescentsAnchorage - Mat-Su7.8%5.3%11.4%52469
Alaska Native adolescentsGulf Coast10.4%7.1%14.8%22215
Alaska Native adolescentsInterior5.9%3.4%10.1%21219
Alaska Native adolescentsNorthern6.7%4.9%9.1%43629
Alaska Native adolescentsSoutheast9.6%7.1%12.8%34312
Alaska Native adolescentsSouthwest4.0%2.5%6.3%10258

Data Notes

These data are a regional compilation of YRBS surveys conducted for local school districts. The responses come from surveys conducted in traditional, alternative, and correctional high schools. They consist of both representative (weighted) and unrepresentative (unweighted) samples. The representative samples have been weighted to the sex and grade characteristics of their school district. The unrepresentative surveys have a weight of 1 to signify that the information is not extrapolated to other students. The results of the local YRBS program may not meet the statistical rigor of the statewide estimates and should be viewed with caution. However, the local YRBS program does demonstrate the existence of risk factors.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

References and Community Resources

'''References:''' 1. Prescription Drugs. National Council on Alcohol and Drug Dependence website. [https://ncadd.org/learn-about-drugs/prescription-drugs]. Accessed 7/16/15. 2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. NSDUH Series H-48, HHS publication no. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD. SAMHSA, 2014. [http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUHresultsPDFWHTML2013/Web/NSDUHresults2013.pdf]. Accessed 7/16/15. 3. Cerd M, Santaella J, Marshall BD, Kim JH, Martins SS. Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use in Childhood and Early Adolescence Predicts Transitions to Heroin Use in Young Adulthood: A National Study. J Pediatr. 2015 Jun 5. pii: S0022-3476(15)00459-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.04.071. [Epub ahead of print]

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Alaska health promotion resources may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

AK-IBIS Web Citation

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AK-IBIS Indicator Citation:
"[Indicator name]. Retrieved on [insert date] from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Example:
Diabetes Prevalence. Retrieved on March 25, 2016, from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Page Content Updated On 05/11/2017, Published on 05/11/2017
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Thu, 25 April 2019 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Thu, 11 May 2017 07:53:10 AKDT
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Thu, 25 April 2019 20:02:55 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Thu, 11 May 2017 07:53:10 AKDT