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State of Alaska

Complete Health Indicator Report of Drug Use - Marijuana - Adults (18+)

Definition

Percentage of adults 18 years of age and older who responded 1 or more days on the [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)] to the question: "During the past 30 days, on how many days did you use marijuana or hashish?"

Numerator

Weighted number of adults (18+) who responded 1 or more days on the BRFSS to the question: "During the past 30 days, on how many days did you use marijuana or hashish?"

Denominator

Weighted number of adults (18+) with complete and valid responses on the BRFSS to the question: "During the past 30 days, on how many days did you use marijuana or hashish?" excluding those with missing, "Don't know/Not sure," or "Refused" responses.

Data Interpretation Issues

The introduction to the Marijuana section on the BRFSS states: "The next questions are about recent use of marijuana. Your answers are strictly private and confidential and will only be used to help improve health services." The current use of marijuana question was asked as a state-added question on the standard and supplemental BRFSS surveys in 2015.

Why Is This Important?

Long-term, regular marijuana use starting in the young adult years may impair brain development and functioning. The main chemical in marijuana is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which, when smoked, quickly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream, which then carries it to organs throughout the body, including the brain. THC disrupts the brain's normal functioning and can lead to problems studying, learning new things, and recalling recent events.^1^ Frequent marijuana use has also been linked to increased risk of psychosis in individuals with specific pre-existing genetic vulnerabilities.^2,3^ Marijuana use--particularly long-term, chronic use or use starting at a young age--can also lead to dependence and addiction. These effects highlight the importance of prevention. [[br]][[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Crean RD, Crane NA, Mason BJ. An evidence based review of acute and long-term effects of cannabis use on executive cognitive functions. Journal of Addiction Medicine 2011;5(1):1-15. 2. Di Forti M, Iyegbe C, Sallis H, Kolliakou A, et al. Confirmation that the AKT1 (rs2494732) genotype influences the risk of psychosis in cannabis users. Biological Psychiatry 2012;72(10):811-816. 3. Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Cannon M, et al. Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene X environment interaction. Biological Psychiatry 2005;57(10):1117-1127. }}

Healthy People Objective: Reduce the proportion of adults reporting use of any illicit drug during the past 30 days

U.S. Target: 7.1 percent

How Are We Doing?

The percentage of Alaskan adults who reported marijuana use in the past 30 days was 18.9% for all Alaskans and 22.2% for Alaska Native people in 2017. Males were more likely to use (22.7%) than were females (14.9%) in 2017. Smoking marijuana was the most commonly reported primary method of consumption among all Alaskans (85.6%) and Alaska Native people (88.7%). The prevalence of current marijuana use declined as age, education, or income increased. Married or widowed adults reported lower prevalence rates of current marijuana usage than those who were divorced/separated, never married, or living with a partner. Adults who were either unemployed (29.0%) or unable to work (35.8%) reported significantly higher prevalence of current marijuana usage than either those employed (19.0%) or not in the workforce (11.7%). Adults who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual reported higher prevalence of current marijuana usage at 33.6% compared to 15.9% among those who identify as heterosexual. The prevalence of current marijuana use increased with poorer assessments of general health status or the number of domains of Adverse Childhood Exposures. Adult marijuana use prevalence rates from the BRFSS are initially presented for all Alaskans and Alaska Native people for 2015-2017. This is followed by the prevalence of current medical marijuana usage. Methods of marijuana usage are then reported. Subsequent analyses by demographic subpopulations (i.e., sex, age, race/ethnicity, ethnicity, marital status, education, employment status, income, and poverty status) are presented for 2015-2017. Crosstabulations were also conducted by body mass index, sexual orientation, disability, general health status, and number of Adverse Childhood Experiences. Significant differences occurred within each comparison. Adult marijuana use prevalence rates are presented for 2015-2017 recent time period allowing reporting for all Alaskans and Alaska Native people: 1) the 7 Alaska Public Health Regions, 2) 5 Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas and rural remainder, and 3) 11 behavioral health systems regions based upon aggregations of 20,000 population.

What Is Being Done?

Marijuana affects everyone differently based on personal characteristics like body type and history of use. It's important to recognize your limits. THC levels can be much higher in today's marijuana products, and the effects of marijuana can be significantly delayed, particularly with edibles. Also, driving while impaired is illegal, regardless of the substance you are using. If you are not sure whether you are impaired, do not drive. Marijuana may be harmful to developing brains, so do not use marijuana if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Smoking marijuana or consuming edible cannabis products can expose your baby to potentially harmful substances. If you have young children or teenagers at home, store your marijuana in a child-resistant container and make it inaccessible to them.

Evidence-based Practices

Experts attest that an optimal mix of prevention interventions is required to address substance use issues in communities because they are among the most difficult social problems to prevent or reduce. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA's) program grantees should consider comprehensive solutions that fit the particular needs of their communities and population, within cultural context, and take into consideration unique local circumstances, including community readiness. Some interventions may be evidence-based, while others may document their effectiveness based on other sources of information and empirical data. Early intervention also is critical to treating mental illness before it can cause tragic results like serious impairment, unemployment, homelessness, poverty, and suicide. The [https://www.samhsa.gov/grants/block-grants/mhbg Community Mental Health Services Block Grant (MHBG)] directs states to set aside 5% of their MHBG allocation, which is administered by SAMHSA, to support evidence-based programs that address the needs of individuals with early serious mental illness, including psychotic disorders. [https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/mhbg-5-percent-set-aside-guidance.pdf The Guidance for Revision of the FY2014-2015 MHBG Behavioral Health Assessment and Plan (PDF | 92 KB)] provides additional information. To prevent marijuana use before it starts, or to intervene when use has already begun, parents and other caregivers as well as those with relationships with young people--such as teachers, coaches, and others--should be informed about marijuana's effects in order to provide relevant and accurate information on the dangers and misconceptions of marijuana use. Comprehensive prevention programs focusing on risk and protective factors have shown success preventing marijuana use.^4,5^ Evidence-based strategies or best practices in community level prevention efforts can be used to assess, build capacity, plan, implement, and evaluate initiatives.^6^ Review SAMHSA's [https://www.samhsa.gov/capt/practicing-evidence-based-prevention criteria] for defining a prevention program or early intervention as evidence-based. Also, search SAMHSA's [http://www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/01_landing.aspx National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices] to find evidence-based programs related to [http://legacy.nreppadmin.net/SearchResultsNew.aspx?s=b&q=prevention+early+intervention prevention and early intervention] for all behavioral health issues.[[br]][[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 4. Center for the Application of Prevention Technologies. Prevention programs that address youth marijuana use. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2014. 5. Mason WA, Fleming CB, Haggerty KP. Prevention of marijuana misuse: School-, family-, and community-based approaches. In M. T. Compton (Ed.), Marijuana and Mental Health. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. In press. 6. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. Practicing effective prevention. [http://www.samhsa.gov/capt/practicing-effective-prevention]. Accessed on June 27, 2016. }}

Available Services

Services Available to the Public: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) has a toll-free referral helpline. The number is: 1-800-662-HELP (4357).


Related Indicators

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015-2017

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confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsYearPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 6
All Alaskans201515.7%14.3%17.2%9547,620
All Alaskans201615.4%13.9%17.1%8586,880
All Alaskans201718.9%17.1%20.8%9376,473
Alaska Native people201522.6%19.5%26.0%2751,368
Alaska Native people201624.0%19.9%28.6%2321,211
Alaska Native people201722.2%17.7%27.6%2061,094

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting medical marijuana use in past 30 days, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015-2016

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confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsYearPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 4
All Alaskans201510.7%7.1%15.7%74498
All Alaskans20167.7%4.9%11.9%55507
Alaska Native people20155.2%2.2%11.7%10127
Alaska Native people20169.7%3.2%26.1%9135

Data Notes

'''Definition:''' Percentage of adults aged 18 and older who responded 1 or more days on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to the question: "This second question is about medical marijuana use only. During the past 30 days, on how many days did you use medical marijuana as recommended by a doctor or other health care provider for treatment of a medical condition?" '''Numerator:''' Weighted number of adults (18+) who responded 1 or more days on the BRFSS to the question: "During the past 30 days, on how many days did you use medical marijuana as recommended by a doctor or other health care provider for treatment of a medical condition?" '''Denominator:''' Weighted number of adults (18+) who responded to the current medical marijuana use question on the BRFSS, excluding those with missing, "Don't know/not sure," or "Refused" responses. The BRFSS question on use of medical marijuana was only asked on the 2015 supplemental survey.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Primary method of marijuana usage by percentage of adult (18+) current marijuana users, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Current marijuana users could report one or more methods of usage so the percentages will not sum to 100%.
Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adults (18+) who are current marijuana usersLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 12
All AlaskansSmoked85.6%81.7%88.9%762934
All AlaskansEaten6.8%4.8%9.6%90934
All AlaskansVaped3.0%2.0%4.6%39934
All AlaskansDrank0.4%0.2%0.9%10934
All AlaskansDabbed2.0%0.9%4.3%17934
All AlaskansOther2.0%0.7%5.4%14934
Alaska Native peopleSmoked88.7%79.1%94.2%182205
Alaska Native peopleEaten**205
Alaska Native peopleVaped1.9%0.6%5.5%5205
Alaska Native peopleDrank**205
Alaska Native peopleDabbed0.9%0.3%2.9%6205
Alaska Native peopleOther3.7%1.2%11.0%5205

Data Notes

'''Definition:''' Percentage of adults 18 years of age and older who responded affirmatively to the question: "During the past 30 days, how did you use marijuana? (Allow multiple responses)" 1. It was vaporized (e-cigarette like vaporizer) 2. It was smoked (in a joint, bong, pipe, blunt) 3. It was eaten in food (in brownies, cakes, cookies, candies) 4. It was consumed in a beverage (tea, cola, alcohol) 5. It was dabbed 6. It was used in some other way. The methods of marijuana usage were asked on the 2015 standard survey as a multiple responses to a single question and on the 2015 supplemental survey as individual "yes" or "no" questions.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by sex, all Alaskans, 2015-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Males vs. FemalesYearPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 6
Males201519.0%16.8%21.3%5743,491
Males201618.6%16.3%21.0%5053,134
Males201722.7%20.1%25.5%5613,123
Females201512.2%10.4%14.3%3804,129
Females201612.2%10.2%14.4%3533,746
Females201714.9%12.6%17.5%3763,350

Data Notes

The sex of the respondent is only asked if necessary.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by age, all Alaskans, 2015-2017

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confidence limits

HA: Age Group: 18-24,25-34,35-44,45-64,65+YearPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 15
18-24201524.5%19.3%30.7%102416
18-24201620.5%15.5%26.7%72347
18-24201730.5%24.1%37.8%97390
25-34201520.3%16.6%24.7%167840
25-34201621.6%17.3%26.7%141684
25-34201725.7%20.7%31.3%142704
35-44201518.6%14.8%23.2%155989
35-44201616.7%13.3%20.8%134859
35-44201719.3%15.4%24.0%146825
45-64201513.6%11.7%15.7%4263,331
45-64201614.7%12.5%17.3%3872,942
45-64201716.7%14.3%19.4%3932,641
65+20154.3%3.2%5.7%1011,947
65+20164.4%3.5%5.7%1161,928
65+20176.0%4.8%7.4%1531,802

Data Notes

Respondents are asked, "What is your age?, which is coded in years. Responses of Refused are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by race/ethnicity, all Alaskans, 2015-2017 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

** = Data not available due to fewer than 50 responses in the denominator.
Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 7
Alaska Native (any mention)22.9%20.5%25.5%7133,672
Asian (non-Hispanic)8.4%5.2%13.2%29346
Black (non-Hispanic)20.7%14.0%29.4%35265
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic)8.9%3.0%23.3%783
White (non-Hispanic)15.1%14.1%16.2%1,81015,471
Multiracial/Other (non-Hisp.)14.8%7.5%27.0%22145
Hispanic (alone or multi)25.0%19.1%32.1%75529

Data Notes

Race/ethnicity is determined by responses to three questions: [[br]] 1) "Are you Hispanic, Latino/a, or Spanish origin?" "If yes, are you...?" One or more categories may be selected from categories of (1) "Mexican, Mexican American, Chicano/a"; (2) "Puerto Rican"; (3) "Cuban"; (4) "Another Hispanic, Latino/a, or Spanish origin".[[br]] 2) "Which one or more of the following would you say is your race?" Response categories consist of "White", "Black or African American", "American Indian or Alaska Native", "Asian" (with subcategories of Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, or Other Asian), "Pacific Islander" (with subcategories of Native Hawaiian, Guamanian or Chamorro, Samoan, or Other Pacific Islander), Other, or No additional choices. [[br]] 3) If more than one response to race, then "Which one of these groups would you say best represents your race?" with choices from the list enumerated above. Responses of Don't Know/Not Sure or Refused are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by ethnicity, all Alaskans, 2015-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Ethnicity - Hispanic/LatinoYearPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 6
Hispanic/Latino201522.0%13.9%33.2%31207
Hispanic/Latino201624.8%15.4%37.4%27200
Hispanic/Latino201725.9%16.4%38.3%34197
Not Hispanic/Latino201515.5%14.0%17.0%9207,310
Not Hispanic/Latino201614.9%13.5%16.5%8206,591
Not Hispanic/Latino201718.4%16.6%20.3%8906,188

Data Notes

Ethnicity is defined independent of race. It is based upon responses to the question, "Are you Hispanic, Latino/a, or Spanish origin?" Responses of "Don't Know/Not Sure" or "Refused" are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by marital status, all Alaskans, 2015-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Marital StatusYearPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 15
Married201510.0%8.5%11.7%3564,210
Married20169.0%7.6%10.6%3473,866
Married201711.1%9.4%13.0%3623,520
Widowed20158.9%6.1%12.8%50647
Widowed20166.9%4.1%11.3%49614
Widowed20178.9%5.5%14.1%56566
Divorced/Separated201516.3%12.9%20.4%1641,185
Divorced/Separated201616.1%12.6%20.4%1601,069
Divorced/Separated201723.5%19.3%28.2%2001,020
Never Married201524.8%21.0%29.0%2921,193
Never Married201626.1%22.0%30.8%2291,027
Never Married201729.3%24.7%34.3%2381,020
Living with a Partner201529.1%21.7%37.9%81319
Living with a Partner201630.2%21.8%40.2%64247
Living with a Partner201731.8%24.1%40.5%78303

Data Notes

Marital status is determined by the question, "Are you ...?" with responses of "Married", 'Divorced", "Widowed", "Separated", "Never married," or "A member of an unmarried couple". Responses of "Refused" are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by education, all Alaskans, 2015-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Edu Level: LT High School, High School, Some College, College GradYearPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 12
LT High School201523.4%17.4%30.6%82348
LT High School201626.9%19.3%36.2%69292
LT High School201731.9%23.4%41.8%76298
High School201517.2%14.2%20.6%2571,773
High School201619.0%15.7%22.7%2621,628
High School201721.2%17.5%25.4%2591,495
Some College201514.3%12.0%16.9%2712,175
Some College201613.7%11.2%16.6%2331,945
Some College201716.6%13.7%20.1%2461,786
College Graduate20158.7%7.0%10.7%2382,872
College Graduate20168.6%7.0%10.5%2202,641
College Graduate201711.0%9.2%13.1%2582,478

Data Notes

Education is based upon education completed by or after 25 years of age. Individuals less than 25 years of age are excluded. Education is assessed by responses to the question: "What is the highest grade or year of school you completed?" Responses are "Never attended school or only attended kindergarten", "Grades 1 through 8 (Elementary)", "Grades 9 through 11 (Some high school)", "Grade 12 (High School Graduate)", "College 1 year to 3 years (Some college or technical school)", "College 4 years or more (College graduate)", or "Refused". Refusals are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by employment status, all Alaskans, 2015-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: EmploymentYearPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 12
Employed201514.7%12.9%16.6%5314,448
Employed201614.6%12.7%16.7%4563,847
Employed201719.0%16.7%21.4%5423,724
Unemployed201533.5%26.9%40.8%129453
Unemployed201627.3%20.9%34.9%100397
Unemployed201729.0%21.2%38.4%88351
Not In Work Force201511.2%8.7%14.3%1882,291
Not In Work Force20169.9%7.8%12.5%2012,234
Not In Work Force201711.7%9.1%14.9%2012,009
Unable to Work201530.9%23.5%39.5%102362
Unable to Work201632.7%24.2%42.4%93354
Unable to Work201735.8%27.5%45.1%101344

Data Notes

Employment status is assessed by the question: "Are you currently ...?" with responses of "Employed for wages", "Self-employed", "Out of work for 1 year or more", "Out of work for less than 1 year", "A Homemaker", "A Student", "Retired", "Unable to work" or "Refused". Refusals are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by income, all Alaskans, 2015-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Income: LT $15k, $15k-$25k, $25k-$50k, $50-$75k, $75k+YearPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 15
<$15,000201526.8%21.3%33.0%142513
<$15,000201629.1%22.0%37.4%124479
<$15,000201737.4%29.9%45.5%153483
$15,000 - $24,999201524.0%19.2%29.7%163819
$15,000 - $24,999201622.9%17.8%29.0%144700
$15,000 - $24,999201727.6%21.5%34.6%162741
$25,000 - $49,999201519.4%15.7%23.7%2011,373
$25,000 - $49,999201618.1%14.6%22.3%1821,264
$25,000 - $49,999201720.3%16.2%25.1%1841,175
$50,000 - $74,999201514.4%11.2%18.3%1261,188
$50,000 - $74,999201614.9%11.4%19.3%1111,067
$50,000 - $74,999201721.1%16.9%26.0%156991
$75,000+201510.8%9.0%13.0%2512,977
$75,000+201610.8%8.8%13.1%2552,762
$75,000+201711.1%9.1%13.4%2412,542

Data Notes

Income is measure by the question: "Is your annual household income from all sources ---" with categories of "Less than $10,000", "Less than $15,000", "less than $20,000", "less than $25,000", "less than $35,000", "less than $50,000", "less than $75,000", "$75,000 or more", and "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused". Responses of "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused" are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by poverty threshold, all Alaskans, 2015-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Poverty thresholds are intended for use as a statistical yardstick, not as a complete description of what people and families need to live. Poverty thresholds are the dollar amounts assigned by the U.S. Census Bureau to determine poverty status. Poverty thresholds are assigned based upon the size of the family and the ages of the members (i.e., adults versus children). The same thresholds are used throughout the United States. Poverty thresholds were originally derived in the 1963-1964 using U.S. Department of Agriculture food budgets designed for families under economic stress and data about what proportion of their income families spent on food. The thresholds are updated annually for inflation using the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U). How the Census Bureau Measures Poverty - U.S. Census Bureau [https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/about/overview/measure.html]
HA: Poverty ThresholdYearPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 9
Poor201525.0%19.4%31.6%109413
Poor201625.4%17.9%34.7%90340
Poor201731.6%24.5%39.6%133411
Near Poor201524.2%19.3%29.8%164811
Near Poor201619.2%14.7%24.6%132663
Near Poor201728.5%23.1%34.6%208971
Middle/High201512.7%11.0%14.7%4594,782
Middle/High201613.1%11.3%15.1%4574,413
Middle/High201715.7%13.8%17.7%5314,386

Data Notes

Poverty thresholds computed using the BRFSS assume that householders are less than 65 years of age as the ages of the household heads are not recorded. The maximum of the income range provided for the household is used to evaluate the proportion of the poverty threshold. This is a conservative approach as there are no errors of misclassification into the lowest poverty group. The category of Poor represents less than 100% of the poverty threshold. Near Poor is 100% through 199% of the poverty threshold. Middle/High income families are 200% or higher of the poverty threshold. How the Census Bureau Measures Poverty - U.S. Census Bureau [https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/about/overview/measure.html]

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by body mass index, all Alaskans, 2015-2017 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Weight CategoryPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 3
Neither Overweight nor Obese21.5%19.6%23.5%1,0286,315
Overweight15.7%14.3%17.2%9717,328
Obese14.2%12.6%15.9%6976,320

Data Notes

Body Mass Index (BMI) is computed based upon responses to the questions, "About how much do you weight without shoes?" and "About how tall are you without shoes?" Responses of "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused" to either questions are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by sexual orientation, all Alaskans, 2015-2017 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 2
Heterosexual15.9%14.9%16.9%2,48219,437
Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual33.6%27.5%40.2%166640

Data Notes

Sexual orientation is assessed by the question: "Now I'm going to ask you a question about sexual orientation. Do you think of yourself as A. Gay or lesbian, B. Straight, that is, not lesbian or gay, C. Bisexual, or D. something else?" Responses of "Straight, that is not lesbian or gay" are contrasted with the combined responses to "Gay or lesbian" and "Bisexual". Responses of "Something else", "Don't Know / Not sure", or "Refused" are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by disability, all Alaskans, 2015-2017 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 2
Disability Present24.4%20.1%29.4%2141,228
Disability Absent15.1%13.3%17.1%5294,118

Data Notes

Disability is assessed using responses from 5 questions: 1) "Are you blind or do you have serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing glasses?"; 2) Because of physical, mental, or emotional condition, do you have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?"; 3) "Do you have a serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?"; 4) "Do you have difficulty dressing or bathing?"; and 5) "Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, do you have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping?" A "Yes" response to one or more of the questions when all questions have valid answers is used to classify the respondent as having a disability. Responses of "No" to all 5 questions denotes the absence of a disability. Responses of "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused" to one or more questions result in the survey being excluded from analysis on disability status.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by general health status, all Alaskans, 2015-2017 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 3
Excellent/Very Good13.9%12.7%15.1%1,17010,901
Good17.3%15.6%19.1%8966,606
Fair/Poor24.3%21.7%27.1%6683,400

Data Notes

General health is assessed by the question: "Would you say that in general your health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?" Responses of "Excellent" and "Very good" are combined, as are "Fair" and "Poor." Responses of "Don't know/Not sure" and "Refused" are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by adverse childhood experience score, all Alaskans, 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 4
08.0%5.8%10.9%861,156
111.1%8.0%15.1%83652
2-323.2%18.1%29.2%120722
4+27.2%21.6%33.7%133540

Data Notes

The presence of one or more Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) is assessed using either the 10 domains that are grouped into: [[br]] '''Abuse:'''[[br]] 1) Verbal Abuse[[br]] 2) Physical Abuse[[br]] 3) Sexual Abuse][[br]] '''Dysfunctional Households:'''[[br]] 4) Substance Abuse[[br]] 5) Mental Illness[[br]] 6) Domestic Violence[[br]] 7) Separation/Divorce[[br]] 8) Incarceration among household members[[br]] '''Neglect:'''[[br]] 9) Emotional Neglect[[br]] 10) Physical Neglect[[br]] The presence of an Adverse Childhood Experience have grouped into scores of 0 (no exposure), 1 (single exposure to an ACE), 2-3 (exposure to 2 or 3 ACEs), and 4+ (exposure to 4 or more different ACEs) The questions associated with each type of ACEs is described in the [http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/indicator/index/Alphabetical.html respective reports]. A summary ACEs score is computed for those with valid responses to all domains. Respondents with refusals to one or more of the ACEs questions are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by Alaska Public Health Regions, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015-2017 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 14
All AlaskansAnchorage20.8%17.3%24.8%1531,083
All AlaskansGulf Coast17.3%13.3%22.2%141925
All AlaskansInterior15.5%12.9%18.6%1981,586
All AlaskansMat-Su15.9%13.1%19.2%1411,043
All AlaskansNorthern27.1%17.4%39.6%54273
All AlaskansSoutheast21.6%18.0%25.8%1701,005
All AlaskansSouthwest17.3%9.7%29.0%80558
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage21.3%12.1%34.9%16104
Alaska Native peopleGulf Coast23.2%10.9%42.7%1584
Alaska Native peopleInterior17.9%11.6%26.6%47246
Alaska Native peopleMat-Su20.3%10.8%35.0%1495
Alaska Native peopleNorthern31.9%19.5%47.6%43161
Alaska Native peopleSoutheast18.2%11.2%28.3%24125
Alaska Native peopleSouthwest22.7%11.4%40.0%47279

Data Notes

Geographic descriptions of the public health regions can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_phr.aspx].

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015-2017 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 10
All AlaskansAnchorage MSA15.9%14.5%17.5%7946,874
All AlaskansFairbanks North Star MSA14.6%12.9%16.5%3863,328
All AlaskansJuneau MicroSA23.6%20.2%27.3%2271,361
All AlaskansKetchikan Gateway MicroSA16.5%12.4%21.6%83687
All AlaskansRural (non-Metro/MicroSA)18.1%16.6%19.6%1,2598,723
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage MSA19.1%14.7%24.4%94612
Alaska Native peopleFairbanks North Star MSA17.8%12.7%24.3%51314
Alaska Native peopleJuneau MicroSA26.3%17.2%38.1%28144
Alaska Native peopleKetchikan Gateway MicroSA24.6%15.0%37.6%2299
Alaska Native peopleRural (non-Metro/MicroSA)25.7%22.5%29.3%5182,503

Data Notes

** = Data not available due to fewer than 50 responses in the denominator. Geographic descriptions of the metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_mmsa.aspx].

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by behavioral health systems regions, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015-2017 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 22
All AlaskansAnchorage Muncipality15.8%14.0%17.8%3733,527
All AlaskansFairbanks North Star Borough14.6%12.9%16.5%3863,328
All AlaskansCity and Borough of Juneau23.6%20.2%27.3%2271,361
All AlaskansKenai Peninsula Borough18.0%15.4%20.9%3162,277
All AlaskansMatanuska-Susitna Borough16.2%14.4%18.1%4213,347
All AlaskansNorthwest Region22.0%17.6%27.2%159913
All AlaskansOther Interior Region16.6%14.0%19.5%2601,859
All AlaskansOther SE - Northern19.3%16.0%23.0%1491,028
All AlaskansOther SE - Southern18.4%14.7%22.8%126897
All AlaskansY-K Delta Region27.0%21.1%33.9%146853
All AlaskansSouthwest Region11.6%8.6%15.5%1861,583
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage Muncipality18.8%13.5%25.5%51335
Alaska Native peopleFairbanks North Star Borough17.8%12.7%24.3%51314
Alaska Native peopleCity and Borough of Juneau26.3%17.2%38.1%28144
Alaska Native peopleKenai Peninsula Borough29.1%17.7%43.9%37190
Alaska Native peopleMatanuska-Susitna Borough20.1%14.0%28.0%43277
Alaska Native peopleNorthwest Region27.6%21.6%34.4%126515
Alaska Native peopleOther Interior Region20.8%16.2%26.2%104449
Alaska Native peopleOther SE - Northern23.0%15.5%32.9%28153
Alaska Native peopleOther SE - Southern28.6%19.8%39.5%36151
Alaska Native peopleY-K Delta Region30.5%23.5%38.6%114550
Alaska Native peopleSouthwest Region18.9%12.1%28.5%95594

Data Notes

Geographic descriptions of the behavioral health systems assessment reporting regions can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_bhs.aspx].

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, Boroughs and Census Areas, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015-2017 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 58
All AlaskansAleutians East Borough11.0%4.2%25.8%14152
All AlaskansAleutians West CA12.9%5.7%26.7%30291
All AlaskansAnchorage Municipality15.8%14.0%17.8%3733,527
All AlaskansBethel CA22.0%16.2%29.2%100641
All AlaskansBristol Bay Borough8.5%5.0%14.3%22172
All AlaskansDenali Borough13.0%7.6%21.4%27209
All AlaskansDillingham CA22.4%12.5%36.8%55368
All AlaskansFairbanks North Star Borough14.6%12.9%16.5%3863,328
All AlaskansHaines Borough26.7%17.7%38.3%35187
All AlaskansHoonah-Angoon CA21.9%13.8%32.9%21106
All AlaskansJuneau City and Borough23.6%20.2%27.3%2271,361
All AlaskansKenai Peninsula Borough18.0%15.4%20.9%3162,277
All AlaskansKetchikan Gateway Borough16.5%12.4%21.6%83687
All AlaskansKodiak Island Borough8.1%5.0%12.8%40418
All AlaskansKusilvak CA36.6%24.8%50.2%46212
All AlaskansLake and Peninsula Borough11.3%6.9%18.0%25182
All AlaskansMatanuska-Susitna Borough16.2%14.4%18.1%4213,347
All AlaskansNome CA28.2%20.7%37.1%87412
All AlaskansNorth Slope Borough17.3%11.2%25.8%36245
All AlaskansNorthwest Arctic Borough15.8%9.8%24.4%36256
All AlaskansPetersburg Borough18.5%11.2%29.0%20167
All AlaskansPrince of Wales-Hyder CA24.5%17.0%34.0%43210
All AlaskansSitka City and Borough21.8%16.2%28.6%58375
All AlaskansSkagway Municipality**43
All AlaskansSoutheast Fairbanks CA11.6%8.4%15.9%73705
All AlaskansValdez-Cordova CA17.2%12.5%23.2%55428
All AlaskansWrangell City and Borough5.8%2.5%12.9%9119
All AlaskansYakutat City and Borough**31
All AlaskansYukon-Koyukuk CA22.6%17.2%29.1%105517
Alaska Native peopleAleutians East Borough22.9%8.5%48.7%1075
Alaska Native peopleAleutians West CA31.5%12.1%60.6%1384
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage Municipality18.8%13.5%25.5%51335
Alaska Native peopleBethel CA24.3%17.2%33.2%68366
Alaska Native peopleBristol Bay Borough6.1%2.5%13.9%763
Alaska Native peopleDenali Borough**9
Alaska Native peopleDillingham CA30.0%15.8%49.4%41191
Alaska Native peopleFairbanks North Star Borough17.8%12.7%24.3%51314
Alaska Native peopleHaines Borough**27
Alaska Native peopleHoonah-Angoon CA**32
Alaska Native peopleJuneau City and Borough26.3%17.2%38.1%28144
Alaska Native peopleKenai Peninsula Borough29.1%17.7%43.9%37190
Alaska Native peopleKetchikan Gateway Borough24.6%15.0%37.6%2299
Alaska Native peopleKodiak Island Borough3.9%1.3%10.7%673
Alaska Native peopleKusilvak CA40.0%27.4%54.0%46184
Alaska Native peopleLake and Peninsula Borough16.3%10.2%25.1%18108
Alaska Native peopleMatanuska-Susitna Borough20.1%14.0%28.0%43277
Alaska Native peopleNome CA34.9%25.1%46.2%68231
Alaska Native peopleNorth Slope Borough24.8%15.3%37.6%30122
Alaska Native peopleNorthwest Arctic Borough16.6%10.0%26.3%28162
Alaska Native peoplePetersburg Borough**9
Alaska Native peoplePrince of Wales-Hyder CA35.3%20.1%54.3%1452
Alaska Native peopleSitka City and Borough22.7%10.7%41.7%855
Alaska Native peopleSkagway Municipality**2
Alaska Native peopleSoutheast Fairbanks CA17.8%9.0%32.1%1583
Alaska Native peopleValdez-Cordova CA**48
Alaska Native peopleWrangell City and Borough**17
Alaska Native peopleYakutat City and Borough**11
Alaska Native peopleYukon-Koyukuk CA21.9%16.3%28.7%75309

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adults (18+) reporting marijuana use in past 30 days, by tribal health organization regions, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015-2017 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of AdultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 24
All AlaskansAleutians and Pribilofs12.3%6.4%22.4%44443
All AlaskansAnchorage/Mat-Su15.9%14.5%17.5%7946,874
All AlaskansArctic Slope14.5%8.7%23.0%29222
All AlaskansBristol Bay17.4%10.9%26.6%103726
All AlaskansCopper R/Prince William Snd.16.6%12.1%22.4%57464
All AlaskansInterior15.0%13.4%16.6%5894,712
All AlaskansKenai Peninsula18.0%15.4%20.9%3162,277
All AlaskansKodiak Area8.1%5.0%12.8%40418
All AlaskansNorthwest Arctic15.7%9.8%24.1%38266
All AlaskansNorton Sound28.2%20.7%37.1%87412
All AlaskansSoutheast21.0%18.9%23.3%5023,286
All AlaskansYukon-Kuskokwim27.4%21.5%34.2%150873
Alaska Native peopleAleutians and Pribilofs28.4%13.7%49.8%23159
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage/Mat-Su19.1%14.7%24.4%94612
Alaska Native peopleArctic Slope21.0%12.1%33.7%25110
Alaska Native peopleBristol Bay23.6%13.5%38.0%67365
Alaska Native peopleCopper R/Prince William Snd.22.7%11.8%39.3%1353
Alaska Native peopleInterior20.0%16.1%24.7%141696
Alaska Native peopleKenai Peninsula29.1%17.7%43.9%37190
Alaska Native peopleKodiak Area3.9%1.3%10.7%673
Alaska Native peopleNorthwest Arctic16.8%10.2%26.3%30167
Alaska Native peopleNorton Sound34.9%25.1%46.2%68231
Alaska Native peopleSoutheast26.1%20.8%32.3%92448
Alaska Native peopleYukon-Kuskokwim30.1%23.2%38.1%117568

References and Community Resources

'''References:''' 1. Crean RD, Crane NA, Mason BJ. An evidence based review of acute and long-term effects of cannabis use on executive cognitive functions. Journal of Addiction Medicine 2011;5(1):1-15. 2. Di Forti M, Iyegbe C, Sallis H, Kolliakou A, et al. Confirmation that the AKT1 (rs2494732) genotype influences the risk of psychosis in cannabis users. Biological Psychiatry 2012;72(10):811-816. 3. Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Cannon M, et al. Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene X environment interaction. Biological Psychiatry 2005;57(10):1117-1127. 4. Center for the Application of Prevention Technologies. Prevention programs that address youth marijuana use. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2014. 5. Mason WA, Fleming CB, Haggerty KP. Prevention of marijuana misuse: School-, family-, and community-based approaches. In M. T. Compton (Ed.), Marijuana and Mental Health. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. In press. 6. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. Practicing effective prevention. [http://www.samhsa.gov/capt/practicing-effective-prevention]. Accessed on June 27, 2016. '''Resources:''' DrugFacts: Marijuana | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) [https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana] Get the facts about marijuana for your family [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Director/Pages/marijuana/facts.aspx] Marijuana (Cannabis) - SAMHSA [https://www.samhsa.gov/atod/marijuana]

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Alaska health promotion resources may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

AK-IBIS Web Citation

Use and reproduction of the information published on this website are encouraged and may be done without permission. The following citation should accompany information from this website whenever it is used, reproduced, or published:

AK-IBIS Indicator Citation:
"[Indicator name]. Retrieved on [insert date] from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Example:
Diabetes Prevalence. Retrieved on March 25, 2016, from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Page Content Updated On 09/28/2018, Published on 10/31/2018
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sat, 16 February 2019 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Thu, 8 Nov 2018 09:41:41 AKST
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sat, 16 February 2019 2:07:19 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Thu, 8 Nov 2018 09:41:41 AKST