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State of Alaska

Complete Health Indicator Report of Drug-Induced Mortality Rate

Definition

The age-adjusted drug-induced mortality rate is defined as the number of deaths attributed to drugs per 100,000 population. The list of codes included in drug-induced causes was expanded in the 2003 data year to be more comprehensive. The following ICD-10 codes comprise the list of drug-induced codes: D52.1, D59.0, D59.2, D61.1, D64.2, E06.4, E16.0, E23.1, E24.2, E27.3, E66.1, F11.1-F11.5, F11.7-F11.9, F12.1-F12.5, F12.7-F12.9, F13.1-F13.5, F13.7-F13.9, F14.1-F14.5, F14.7-F14.9, F15.1-F15.5, F15.7-F15.9, F16.1-F16.5, F16.7-F16.9, F17.3-F17.5, F17.7-F17.9, F18.1-F18.5, F18.7-F18.9, F19.1-F19.5, F19.7-F19.9, G21.1,G24.0, G25.1, G25.4, G25.6, G44.4, G62.0, G72.0, I95.2, J70.2-J70.4, K85.3, L10.5, L27.0, L27.1, M10.2, M32.0, M80.4, M81.4, M83.5, M87.1, R78.1, R78.2, R78.3, R78.4, R78.5, X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, and Y10-Y14.

Numerator

Number of deaths induced by drugs in the resident population for a specific time period.

Denominator

Mid-year resident population for the same period, expressed as a rate per 100,000 for a specific time period.

Data Interpretation Issues

[http://live.laborstats.alaska.gov/pop/index.cfm Alaska population estimates] provided by the State Demographer in the [http://laborstats.alaska.gov/ Research and Analysis Section] of the [http://labor.alaska.gov/ Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development]. The list of ICD-10 codes with descriptions for drug-induced mortality can be found in the National Vital Statistics Reports, [https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr67/nvsr67_05.pdf Deaths: Final Data for 2016].

Why Is This Important?

Alcohol and substance misuse have a devastating impact on individuals, families and entire communities across Alaska. The effects of alcohol and other drug misuse include unintentional and intentional injuries, violence, high-risk sexual behaviors, cirrhosis, and alcohol poisoning.^2,3^ Alaska experiences a disparately high rate of alcohol-induced mortality compared to the U.S.^4^ Alcohol and other drug use is common among adolescents and is a strong predictor of dependence in later life.^5^ [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 2. World Health Organization. Interpersonal violence and illicit drugs. [https://www.who.int/violenceprevention/interpersonal_violence_and_illicit_drug_use.pdf]. Accessed February 20, 2019. 3. World Health Organization. Global status report on alcohol and health 2018. [https://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/gsr_2018/en/]. Accessed February 20, 2019. 4. Stahre M, Roeber J, Kanny D, Brewer RD, Zhang X. Contribution of Excessive Alcohol Consumption to Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost in the United States. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:130293.[http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd11.130293]. Accessed February 19, 2019. 5. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Principles of Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment: A Research-Based Guide. Updated June 2014. [https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-adolescent-substance-use-disorder-treatment-research-based-guide/introduction]. Accessed February 19, 2019. }}

Healthy People Objective: Reduce drug-induced deaths

U.S. Target: 11.3 deaths per 100,000 population

How Are We Doing?

In 2018, drug-induced deaths claimed the lives of 118 Alaskans, an age-adjusted rate of 15.7 deaths per 100,000. A 25.9% decrease since 2017. During 2004-2018, adults 25-34, 35-44 years old and 45-54 years old experienced the highest rates of drug-induced mortality at 23.4, 27.3, and 28.7 per 100,000, respectively. Rates of drug-induced mortality by region were lowest in the Northern region (7.6 per 100,000).

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

In 2017 (the most recent year for which national data are available), the national rate of drug-induced mortality was 21.7 per 100,000.^6^ The 2017 rate for all Alaskans was 21.2 per 100,000 and 36.7 per 100,000 for Alaska Native people.[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Multiple Cause of Death 1999-2017 on CDC WONDER Online Database, released December, 2018. Data are from the Multiple Cause of Death Files, 1999-2017, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program. Accessed at http://wonder.cdc.gov/mcd-icd10.html on Oct 3, 2019.}}

What Is Being Done?

Many illicit drugs are of public health concern in Alaska.^7^ In February 2017, Governor Bill Walker declared a public health crisis in response to the dramatic increase in heroin and opioid misuse in the state.^8^ The disaster declaration established a statewide [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Director/Pages/heroin-opioids/narcan.aspx Overdose Response Program] and allows for the distribution of Naloxone, a lifesaving drug that can reverse overdoses caused by opioids.^8^ Although Naloxone would not be effective against an overdose on cocaine, the disaster declaration was also accompanied by the signing of Administrative Order 283. The order instructs all state departments to apply for federal funding for drug abuse prevention and treatment options, the elimination of illegally imported drugs into the state, and the development of resources to provide medical treatment to drug users.^8^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 7. Hull-Jilly DMC, Casto LD. State Epidemiologic Profile on Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependency--2007-2011. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Released November 7, 2013. 8. State of Alaska, Office of the Governor. Safer Alaska: Building Stronger Communities. 16 May 2017. Available at https://gov.alaska.gov/administration-focus/safer-alaska/, Accessed May 17, 2017. }}

Evidence-based Practices

SAMHSA maintains a website that collects the latest in substance abuse prevention evidence based practices. The link to the information can be found here [http://www.samhsa.gov/ebp-web-guide/substance-abuse-prevention]

Available Services

If you are using, use a clean needle. Injection drug use is responsible for approximately 10% of HIV cases annually, and use of injected drugs also increases your risk of other diseases like Hepatitis C.^9^ The only way to be truly safe is to always use new needles, directly out of the package from a trusted source. The following links show where you can exchange used needles for new ones in Alaska. http://www.alaskanaids.org/index.php/prevention/syringe-exchange https://www.interioraids.org/ The system in Alaska that provides substance use treatment contains a continuum of care that includes residential services, outpatient services, and opioid treatment services. The system is comprised of both publicly funded and private providers. The DBH manages the public providers through behavioral health Medicaid and grants. The private system is now eligible as a result of provisions in SB 74 to become a Medicaid provider. This provision is expected to increase treatment capacity in Alaska. See: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/HealthyAlaska/Pages/Redesign/Redesign_news.aspx] If you are seeking treatment for substance abuse, contact a medical provider or locate a treatment center nearest you at [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dbh/Documents/TreatmentRecovery/SUD%20Providers/Substance%20Use%20Disorder%20Treatment%20Providers.pdf]. To learn more about Naloxone, including how it can reverse the effects of opioids and where it is being distributed, visit http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Director/Pages/heroin-opioids/narcan.aspx For more information on how to get help, visit http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Director/Pages/heroin-opioids/help.aspx [[br]][[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 9. State of Alaska, Division of Public Health. Heroin and Opioids in the Last Frontier: How to get help. Available at http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Director/Pages/heroin-opioids/help.aspx. Accessed May 17, 2017. }}

Health Program Information

The State of Alaska Epidemiologic Profile on Substance Use, Abuse and Dependency is available at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Epi/injury/Documents/sa/SubstanceAbuseEpiProfile_2013.pdf]. This profile provides a more detailed report on the state of substance use and abuse in Alaska. The State of Alaska also provides websites on opioid use through Health and Social Services. Please use the following links to access more information about the misuse of opioids, much of which is applicable to other substances of abuse: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Director/Pages/heroin-opioids/default.aspx].


Related Indicators

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Drug-induced deaths per 100,000 population, all Alaskans, Alaska Native people, and U.S., 2000-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Geog: Alaska vs. U.S.YearDrug-induced mortality rate per 100,000 (Age-adjusted)Lower LimitUpper LimitNoteNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 57
All Alaskans20008.57.69.354626,932
All Alaskans200111.510.512.473632,716
All Alaskans200212.311.313.385641,729
All Alaskans200313.312.214.386649,466
All Alaskans200412.911.913.988659,653
All Alaskans200512.211.213.285667,146
All Alaskans200612.311.313.383674,583
All Alaskans200710.59.611.475680,169
All Alaskans200819.017.820.2132686,818
All Alaskans200918.016.919.2132697,828
All Alaskans201011.810.812.784710,231
All Alaskans201114.213.215.3107722,886
All Alaskans201217.716.618.8131731,238
All Alaskans201314.713.715.8109735,859
All Alaskans201417.115.918.2127736,818
All Alaskans201516.815.717.9126737,625
All Alaskans201617.716.518.9133739,709
All Alaskans201721.219.922.5154737,080
All Alaskans201815.714.616.8118736,239
Alaska Natives200014.311.417.1Data statistical unreliable14107,929
Alaska Natives200111.28.813.6Data statistical unreliable11108,430
Alaska Natives200215.812.718.8Data statistical unreliable15109,873
Alaska Natives200319.316.022.620111,314
Alaska Natives200417.914.920.9Data statistical unreliable18112,356
Alaska Natives200522.819.326.222113,773
Alaska Natives200615.412.618.3Data statistical unreliable13114,977
Alaska Natives200710.68.312.9Data statistical unreliable11115,421
Alaska Natives200828.524.732.230115,969
Alaska Natives200927.423.531.428117,974
Alaska Natives201011.48.914.012120,428
Alaska Natives201114.311.617.116122,441
Alaska Natives201225.121.528.728123,605
Alaska Natives201321.017.524.422124,911
Alaska Natives201425.621.729.427126,090
Alaska Natives201533.729.837.639127,155
Alaska Natives201620.016.923.224127,545
Alaska Natives201736.532.340.843127,656
Alaska Natives201822.018.625.524127,929
U.S.20007.019,720233,069,912
U.S.20017.621,705235,289,999
U.S.20029.126,040236,923,006
U.S.20039.928,723238,437,083
U.S.200410.530,711240,099,486
U.S.200511.333,541241,741,451
U.S.200612.838,396243,492,954
U.S.200712.638,371245,220,726
U.S.200812.638,649246,950,308
U.S.200912.639,147248,530,048
U.S.201012.940,393249,686,878
U.S.201113.943,544251,441,744
U.S.201213.843,819252,622,989
U.S.201314.646,471253,802,432
U.S.201415.549,714
U.S.201517.255,403
U.S.201620.867,265
U.S.201722.873,990
U.S.2018**

Data Notes

Data are age adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population. Drug-induced deaths include all deaths for which drugs are the underlying cause ,^1^ including those attributable to acute poisoning by drugs (drug overdoses) and deaths from medical conditions resulting from chronic drug use (e.g., drug-induced Cushing's syndrome). A drug includes illicit or street drugs (e.g., heroin and cocaine), as well as legal prescription and over-the-counter drugs; alcohol is not included.[[br]][[br]] NOTE: Alaska data includes values for F##.0 but lack K85.3 as of January 27, 2017. [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu JQ, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2014. National vital statistics reports; vol 65 no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2016. [https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr65/nvsr65_04.pdf] Accessed January 27, 2017. }}.   ** Data not available Rates based upon fewer than 20 occurrences are statistically unreliable and should be used with caution.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Health Analytics and Vital Records Section (HAVRS)], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services


Drug-induced deaths per 100,000 population, age-specific rates, Alaska, 2004-2018 (15-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Age GroupDrug-induced mortality rate per 100,000 (Age-specific)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 10
0-4**782,335
5-140.40.10.761,553,684
15-2411.59.813.11781,553,771
25-3423.421.025.83641,553,698
35-4427.324.630.03911,433,153
45-5428.726.031.34501,569,392
55-6418.315.920.62351,287,463
65-746.44.38.438597,915
75-845.42.58.313241,783
85+**76,059

Data Notes

Data are age adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population. Drug-induced deaths include all deaths for which drugs are the underlying cause ,^1^ including those attributable to acute poisoning by drugs (drug overdoses) and deaths from medical conditions resulting from chronic drug use (e.g., drug-induced Cushing's syndrome). A drug includes illicit or street drugs (e.g., heroin and cocaine), as well as legal prescription and over-the-counter drugs; alcohol is not included.[[br]][[br]] NOTE: Alaska data includes values for F##.0 but lack K85.3 as of January 27, 2017. [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu JQ, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2014. National vital statistics reports; vol 65 no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2016. [https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr65/nvsr65_04.pdf] Accessed January 27, 2017. }}.   * Rates based on fewer than 20 events are statistically unreliable and should be used with caution.


Drug-induced deaths per 100,000 population, by race, Alaska, 2000-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Race: Alaska Native, White, TotalYearDrug-induced mortality rate per 100,000 (Age-adjusted)Lower LimitUpper LimitNoteNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 57
Alaska Native200014.311.417.1Statistically unreliable14107,929
Alaska Native200111.28.813.6Statistically unreliable11108,430
Alaska Native200215.812.718.8Statistically unreliable15109,873
Alaska Native200319.316.022.620111,314
Alaska Native200417.914.920.9Statistically unreliable18112,356
Alaska Native200522.819.326.222113,773
Alaska Native200615.412.618.3Statistically unreliable13114,977
Alaska Native200710.68.312.9Statistically unreliable11115,421
Alaska Native200828.524.732.230115,969
Alaska Native200927.423.531.428117,974
Alaska Native201011.48.914.012120,428
Alaska Native201114.311.617.116122,441
Alaska Native201225.121.528.728123,605
Alaska Native201321.017.524.422124,911
Alaska Native201425.621.729.427126,090
Alaska Native201533.729.837.639127,155
Alaska Native201620.016.923.224127,545
Alaska Native201736.532.340.843127,656
Alaska Native201822.018.625.524127,929
White20007.87.08.738460,021
White200111.910.813.058463,075
White200212.311.213.466468,097
White200313.312.214.564472,059
White200412.611.413.765478,660
White200511.510.412.661482,786
White200613.011.814.168487,277
White200711.710.612.762490,232
White200818.517.219.996493,820
White200918.317.019.6100499,690
White201012.010.913.063507,467
White201116.014.717.289513,794
White201217.816.519.195517,796
White201315.013.716.281518,821
White201416.615.317.991517,447
White201514.713.515.979515,431
White201617.516.118.892514,814
White201719.618.221.1100510,364
White201815.714.417.084507,304
Total20008.57.69.354626,932
Total200111.510.512.473632,716
Total200212.311.313.385641,729
Total200313.312.214.386649,466
Total200412.911.913.988659,653
Total200512.211.213.285667,146
Total200612.311.313.383674,583
Total200710.59.611.475680,169
Total200819.017.820.2132686,818
Total200918.016.919.2132697,828
Total201011.810.812.783710,231
Total201114.213.215.3107722,886
Total201217.716.618.8131731,238
Total201314.713.715.8109735,859
Total201417.115.918.2127736,818
Total201516.815.717.9126737,183
Total201617.716.518.9133739,709
Total201721.219.922.5154737,080
Total201815.714.616.8118736,239

Data Notes

Data are age adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population. Drug-induced deaths include all deaths for which drugs are the underlying cause ,^1^ including those attributable to acute poisoning by drugs (drug overdoses) and deaths from medical conditions resulting from chronic drug use (e.g., drug-induced Cushing's syndrome). A drug includes illicit or street drugs (e.g., heroin and cocaine), as well as legal prescription and over-the-counter drugs; alcohol is not included.[[br]][[br]] NOTE: Alaska data includes values for F##.0 but lack K85.3 as of January 27, 2017. [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu JQ, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2014. National vital statistics reports; vol 65 no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2016. [https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr65/nvsr65_04.pdf] Accessed January 27, 2017. }}.   Rates based on fewer than 20 events are statistically unreliable and should be used with caution. ** Data not available


Drug-induced deaths per 100,000 population, by Alaska economic regions, 2014-2018 (5-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Drug-induced mortality rate per 100,000 (Age-adjusted)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 8
Anchorage19.118.319.92931,490,733
Gulf Coast20.919.222.784404,627
Interior13.412.314.577562,386
Mat-Su19.117.620.596510,859
Northern7.65.79.410138,472
Southeast18.616.920.370368,319
Southwest11.59.613.323211,811
Statewide17.717.218.26583,687,207

Drug-Induced Death Rates By Region

supplemental image
Rates are age-adjusted for U.S. 2000 standard million population.


Data Notes

Data are age adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population. Drug-induced deaths include all deaths for which drugs are the underlying cause ,^1^ including those attributable to acute poisoning by drugs (drug overdoses) and deaths from medical conditions resulting from chronic drug use (e.g., drug-induced Cushing's syndrome). A drug includes illicit or street drugs (e.g., heroin and cocaine), as well as legal prescription and over-the-counter drugs; alcohol is not included.[[br]][[br]] NOTE: Alaska data includes values for F##.0 but lack K85.3 as of January 27, 2017. [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu JQ, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2014. National vital statistics reports; vol 65 no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2016. [https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr65/nvsr65_04.pdf] Accessed January 27, 2017. }}.   * Rates based on fewer than 20 events are statistically unreliable and should be used with caution.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Pages/default.aspx Health Analytics and Vital Records Section (HAVRS)], Division of Public Health, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services


Drug-induced deaths per 100,000 population (age adjusted rate), by behavioral health region, 2014-2018 (5 year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 11
Anchorage Muncipality19.118.319.92931,490,733
Fairbanks North Star Borough24.922.127.841163,382
City and Borough of Juneau13.412.214.668491,463
Kenai Peninsula Borough24.221.926.469289,686
Matanuska-Susitna Borough19.117.620.596510,859
Northwest Region7.65.79.410138,472
Other Interior Region14.311.816.916118,387
Other SE - Northern10.88.413.212103,744
Other SE - Southern14.912.217.717101,193
Y-K Delta Region12.59.815.114131,625
Southwest Region11.59.413.617147,663

Data Notes

Data are age adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population. Drug-induced deaths include all deaths for which drugs are the underlying cause ,^1^ including those attributable to acute poisoning by drugs (drug overdoses) and deaths from medical conditions resulting from chronic drug use (e.g., drug-induced Cushing's syndrome). A drug includes illicit or street drugs (e.g., heroin and cocaine), as well as legal prescription and over-the-counter drugs; alcohol is not included.[[br]][[br]] NOTE: Alaska data includes values for F##.0 but lack K85.3 as of January 27, 2017. [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu JQ, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2014. National vital statistics reports; vol 65 no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2016. [https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr65/nvsr65_04.pdf] Accessed January 27, 2017. }}

References and Community Resources

'''References:'''[[br]] [[br]] 1. Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu JQ, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2014. National vital statistics reports; vol 65 no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2016. [https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr65/nvsr65_04.pdf] Accessed January 27, 2017. 2. World Health Organization. Interpersonal violence and illicit drugs. [https://www.who.int/violenceprevention/interpersonal_violence_and_illicit_drug_use.pdf]. Accessed February 20, 2019. 3. World Health Organization. Global status report on alcohol and health 2018. [https://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/gsr_2018/en/]. Accessed February 20, 2019. 4. Stahre M, Roeber J, Kanny D, Brewer RD, Zhang X. Contribution of Excessive Alcohol Consumption to Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost in the United States. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:130293.[http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd11.130293]. Accessed February 19, 2019. 5. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Principles of Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment: A Research-Based Guide. Updated June 2014. [https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-adolescent-substance-use-disorder-treatment-research-based-guide/introduction]. Accessed February 19, 2019. 6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Multiple Cause of Death 1999-2017 on CDC WONDER Online Database, released December, 2018. Data are from the Multiple Cause of Death Files, 1999-2017, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program. Accessed at http://wonder.cdc.gov/mcd-icd10.html on Oct 3, 2019. 7. Hull-Jilly DMC, Casto LD. State Epidemiologic Profile on Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependency--2007-2011. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Released November 7, 2013. 8. State of Alaska, Office of the Governor. Safer Alaska: Building Stronger Communities. 16 May 2017. Available at https://gov.alaska.gov/administration-focus/safer-alaska/, Accessed May 17, 2017. 9. State of Alaska, Division of Public Health. Heroin and Opioids in the Last Frontier: How to get help. Available at http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Director/Pages/heroin-opioids/help.aspx. Accessed May 17, 2017. '''Resources:''' Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Health Analytics and Vital Records Section. Alaska Vital Statistics 2015 Annual Report. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/VitalStats/Documents/PDFs/VitalStatistics_Annualreport_2015.pdf].

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Alaska health promotion resources may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

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Example:
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Page Content Updated On 10/08/2019, Published on 10/08/2019
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Tue, 22 October 2019 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Tue, 8 Oct 2019 08:15:59 AKDT
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Tue, 22 October 2019 13:30:37 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Tue, 8 Oct 2019 08:15:59 AKDT