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State of Alaska

Complete Health Indicator Report of Diabetes: Gestational Diabetes

Definition

Percentage of adult women 18 years of age and older who responded "Yes" on the [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)] to the question: "Has a doctor, nurse, or other health professional ever told you have diabetes?" and is a female who responded "Yes" when asked, "Was this only when you were pregnant?".

Numerator

Weighted number of adult (18+) women who responded "Yes" on the BRFSS to the question: "Has a doctor, nurse, or other health professional ever told you have diabetes?" and is a female who responded "Yes" when asked, "Was this only when you were pregnant?".

Denominator

Weighted number of adult (18+) women with complete and valid responses on the BRFSS to the diabetes question, excluding those with missing, "Don't know/Not sure", or "Refused" responses.

Data Interpretation Issues

The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. The BRFSS is a telephone survey of adults 18 and over. Information on background and methodology of the BRFSS managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) can be found at: [http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/]. The website for the Alaska BRFSS is: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx]. The question on gestational diabetes has been asked on the combined Standard and Supplemental BRFSS surveys since 2004. Alaska Native people in analyses of the BRFSS refers to any mention of American Indian or Alaska Native heritage when enumerating racial and ethnic background. Individuals who indicate multiple races including American Indian/Alaska Native are considered Alaska Native in the data. When race and ethnicity are consider concurrently, Hispanic individuals with American Indian/Alaska Native heritage are combined into the Alaska Native (any mention) group and removed from the Hispanic class. This definition of the Alaska Native group is intended to conform to the eligibility requirements for access to Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium health care services. Post-stratification weights were used for Alaska prior to 2006; raking weights were used from 2007 onward. For more on this methodological change see: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/method.aspx].

Why Is This Important?

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes in which high blood glucose levels (also known as impaired glucose tolerance) occurs during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.^1^ Gestational diabetes is usually diagnosed during the middle of pregnancy, between 24 to 28 weeks gestation, and usually goes away soon after delivery. Women who get gestational diabetes are often overweight before becoming pregnant or have a family history of diabetes. Gestational diabetes is more common in American Indian, Alaska Native, Hispanic, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and African American women, but also occurs in White women.^2^ Mothers with gestational diabetes are more likely to have large babies (over 9 lbs.), which may in turn lead to an increased risk of cesarean section delivery.^1^ Women who had gestational diabetes are at an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life.^3^ Infants born to women with gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing diabetes and/or being obese.^3^ To reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, pregnant women should get tested for diabetes 6 to 12 weeks after delivery and then every 1 to 3 years, stay physically active, eat a healthy diet, and maintain a healthy weight.^2^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont See "'Resources and References"' tab for references. }}

How Are We Doing?

The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 1.7% in 2017. Gestational diabetes prevalence rates from the BRFSS are initially presented for all Alaskans and Alaska Native people for all available years. Subsequent analyses by demographic subpopulations (e.g., age, race/ethnicity, ethnicity, marital status, education, employment status, income, and poverty status) are limited to 2010 and later to allow for ease of assessing recent trends. Crosstabulations were also conducted for three-year averages by body mass index, current smoking, sexual orientation, and disability. Only the significant differences evident in contrasts by body mass index and disability are presented, but the other results are available upon request. Gestational diabetes prevalence by regions of Alaska are presented for the most recent time period allowing reporting for all Alaskans and Alaska Native people: 1) single-year for the 6 Alaska Public Health Regions, 2) three-year averages by the 7 Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistics Areas and rural remainder, 3) single-year for the 10 behavioral health assessment regions based upon aggregations of 20,000 population, 4) three-year averages for 29 boroughs and census areas, and 5) five-year averages for the 12 tribal health organization regions. These time intervals match those for the InstantAtlas health profiles for each of the geographic regionalizes of Alaska for those desiring longer time series.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

In 2016, the prevalence rate for gestational diabetes for the U.S. was 0.9%, compared to 1.8% for Alaska. The recent prevalence rate for gestational diabetes in Alaska has been very similar to the national median obtained from the BRFSS.

What Is Being Done?

The Alaska Diabetes Prevention and Control Program supports participation in diabetes education for women with gestational diabetes. Diabetes education courses offer classes specific for people with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or gestational diabetes. Instructors, who are generally certified diabetes educators or registered dietitians, can help women with gestational diabetes control their blood glucose levels with diet and exercise and thereby reduce their likelihood of needing oral medications or insulin.

Evidence-based Practices

It is important to establish prenatal care during your first trimester (first 12 weeks) of pregnancy. Most women do not experience any signs or symptoms of gestational diabetes. For more information, please contact the [http://www.diabetes.alaska.gov Alaska Diabetes Prevention and Control Program].

Available Services

Diabetes educators are skilled health professionals who can help women diagnosed with gestational diabetes optimize their pregnancy outcomes. Many physicians refer their patients with gestational diabetes to one of the diabetes education programs available in the state. Diabetes education programs may be accredited by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) or the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE). The list of ADA-recognized diabetes education programs can be found at https://professional.diabetes.org/erp_list_zip. The list of AADE-accredited diabetes education programs can be found at https://www.diabeteseducator.org/patient-resources/find-a-diabetes-educator. Information on gestational diabetes is available from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) at http://www.diabetes.org. A list of diabetes education classes in Alaska can also be found on the Alaska Diabetes Prevention and Control Program at http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/Diabetes/management.aspx.


Related Indicators

Relevant Population Characteristics

All women of child-bearing age are at risk of developing gestational diabetes during pregnancy, but the risk increases for women who are older, overweight or obese, have a family history of diabetes, and who are members of certain racial or ethnic groups (in other words, the same risk factors as for type 2 diabetes).

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Health Care System Factors

Diabetes education is strongly recommended for women who have been diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes can often be controlled through changes in diet and physical activity levels. Diabetes educators play a prominent role in helping women with gestational diabetes make the lifestyle changes needed to control their blood sugar levels without the need for medications or insulin. Early detection is important. Women who are at high risk for gestational diabetes should seek prenatal care as early as possible during their pregnancy.

Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Risk Factors

Risk factors for gestational diabetes include: being older than 25, having a family history of diabetes, having a previous history of gestational diabetes or a baby weighing over 9 pounds at birth, being overweight or obese, and belonging to certain ethnic or racial groups (African American, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific Islander).

Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Health Status Outcomes

Women with gestational diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Some studies indicate that as many as 40% develop type 2 diabetes within 20 years of being diagnosed with gestational diabetes. There is some evidence regarding the higher risk of diabetes to infants born to mothers with diabetes during pregnancy as well. There appears to be a greater likelihood that these infants are born with compromised pancreatic beta cells, leading to a higher chance of developing diabetes. Poor outcomes from gestational diabetes to babies: [[br]]Very large baby (Macrosomia) [[br]]Respiratory Distress Syndrome [[br]]Low blood sugar (Hypoglycemia) [[br]]Type 2 diabetes later in life Complications to mother: [[br]]High blood pressure [[br]]Pre-eclampsia [[br]]Increased risk of diabetes [[br]]Pre-term labor [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont See "'Resources and References"' tab for references. }}

Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Percentage of adult (18+) women with gestational diabetes, crude rate, all Alaskans, Alaska Native people, and U.S., 2004-2017

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confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsYearPercentage of adult womenLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 35
All Alaskans20042.1%1.5%2.9%
All Alaskans20051.7%1.2%2.4%
All Alaskans20062.4%1.6%3.5%
All Alaskans20073.6%2.6%4.9%
All Alaskans20082.2%1.6%3.2%
All Alaskans20091.7%1.2%2.4%
All Alaskans20102.0%1.2%3.3%331,776
All Alaskans20112.5%1.9%3.5%793,315
All Alaskans20121.5%1.0%2.1%694,468
All Alaskans20131.9%1.3%2.7%954,952
All Alaskans20141.7%1.2%2.5%674,888
All Alaskans20152.8%1.9%4.2%734,338
All Alaskans20161.8%1.1%3.0%523,996
All Alaskans20171.7%1.0%2.7%613,622
Alaska Native people20042.7%1.5%4.8%
Alaska Native people20053.8%2.0%7.1%
Alaska Native people20062.8%1.6%4.7%
Alaska Native people20074.0%2.4%6.5%
Alaska Native people20081.8%0.9%3.5%
Alaska Native people20094.0%2.0%7.9%
Alaska Native people20104.3%2.2%8.4%12343
Alaska Native people20114.3%2.4%7.8%23668
Alaska Native people20122.0%1.0%3.8%25965
Alaska Native people20132.8%1.2%6.2%26854
Alaska Native people20141.7%1.0%3.1%17819
Alaska Native people20154.5%1.9%10.3%21818
Alaska Native people20161.6%0.8%3.1%17756
Alaska Native people20174.9%2.2%10.3%24680
U.S.20111.8%
U.S.20121.6%
U.S.20131.9%
U.S.20141.7%
U.S.20151.7%
U.S.20160.9%
U.S.20170.8%

Data Notes

The BRFSS is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. Data from birth certificates and health records can provide more accurate estimates on the prevalence of gestational diabetes among pregnant women.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adult (18+) women with gestational diabetes, crude rate, by age, all Alaskans, 2010-2017

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confidence limits

HA: Age Group: 18-24,25-34,35-44,45-64,65+YearPercentage of adult womenLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 40
18-242010**78
18-242011**193
18-242012**286
18-242013**317
18-242014**218
18-242015**201
18-242016**186
18-242017**198
25-3420101.9%0.7%4.9%7250
25-3420114.5%2.7%7.6%25447
25-3420122.8%1.5%5.0%21749
25-3420133.8%1.8%7.7%26682
25-3420143.1%1.5%6.3%15583
25-3420155.0%2.4%9.8%17484
25-3420163.3%1.2%8.5%11422
25-3420173.2%1.2%8.2%11411
35-4420102.7%1.3%5.6%10312
35-4420116.7%4.1%10.9%27570
35-4420121.9%1.0%3.9%20719
35-4420133.1%1.5%6.1%26768
35-4420142.8%1.6%4.8%25759
35-4420153.8%2.0%7.1%23582
35-4420163.6%1.4%8.8%13481
35-4420174.0%1.9%7.9%18450
45-6420101.0%0.5%2.3%12798
45-6420110.8%0.4%1.3%201,441
45-6420121.0%0.5%1.9%201,804
45-6420131.1%0.7%1.9%312,095
45-6420141.3%0.6%2.5%202,099
45-6420152.0%0.9%4.1%251,825
45-6420161.0%0.6%1.8%201,709
45-6420170.7%0.4%1.2%211,493
65+2010**312
65+2011**612
65+20120.9%0.2%4.0%5849
65+20130.4%0.1%1.2%51,032
65+20140.5%0.2%1.2%71,138
65+2015**1,177
65+20160.7%0.2%1.9%51,099
65+20170.5%0.2%1.2%8987

Data Notes

The BRFSS is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. Data from birth certificates and health records can provide more accurate estimates on the prevalence of gestational diabetes among pregnant women.   Respondents are asked, "What is your age?, which is coded in years. Responses of Refused are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adult (18+) women with gestational diabetes, crude rate, by race/ethnicity, all Alaskans, 2015-2017 (3-year average)

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confidence limits

Percentage of adult womenLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 7
Alaska Native (any mention)3.7%2.2%6.1%622,254
Asian (non-Hispanic)6.1%2.5%14.0%10200
Black (non-Hispanic)**166
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic)**45
White (non-Hispanic)1.7%1.2%2.4%1028,643
Multiracial/Other (non-Hisp.)**83
Hispanic (alone or multi)0.7%0.2%1.8%5333

Data Notes

The BRFSS is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. Data from birth certificates and health records can provide more accurate estimates on the prevalence of gestational diabetes among pregnant women.   Race/ethnicity is determined by responses to three questions: [[br]] 1) "Are you Hispanic, Latino/a, or Spanish origin?" "If yes, are you...?" One or more categories may be selected from categories of (1) "Mexican, Mexican American, Chicano/a"; (2) "Puerto Rican"; (3) "Cuban"; (4) "Another Hispanic, Latino/a, or Spanish origin".[[br]] 2) "Which one or more of the following would you say is your race?" Response categories consist of "White", "Black or African American", "American Indian or Alaska Native", "Asian" (with subcategories of Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, or Other Asian), "Pacific Islander" (with subcategories of Native Hawaiian, Guamanian or Chamorro, Samoan, or Other Pacific Islander), Other, or No additional choices. [[br]] 3) If more than one response to race, then "Which one of these groups would you say best represents your race?" with choices from the list enumerated above. Responses of Don't Know/Not Sure or Refused are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adult (18+) women with gestational diabetes, crude rate, by ethnicity, all Alaskans, 2010-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Ethnicity - Hispanic/LatinoYearPercentage of adult womenLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 15
Hispanic/Latino2010**45
Hispanic/Latino2011**100
Hispanic/Latino2012**135
Hispanic/Latino2013**1.7%20.3%153
Hispanic/Latino2014**141
Hispanic/Latino2015**123
Hispanic/Latino2016**141
Not Hispanic/Latino20102.1%1.2%3.5%331,710
Not Hispanic/Latino20112.5%1.8%3.5%773,191
Not Hispanic/Latino20121.6%1.1%2.3%694,315
Not Hispanic/Latino20131.6%1.1%2.2%914,756
Not Hispanic/Latino20141.8%1.2%2.6%644,697
Not Hispanic/Latino20153.0%2.0%4.5%714,163
Not Hispanic/Latino20161.9%1.1%3.2%513,799
Not Hispanic/Latino20171.8%1.1%2.9%583,475

Data Notes

The BRFSS is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. Data from birth certificates and health records can provide more accurate estimates on the prevalence of gestational diabetes among pregnant women.   Ethnicity is defined independent of race. It is based upon responses to the question, "Are you Hispanic, Latino/a, or Spanish origin?" Responses of "Don't Know/Not Sure" or "Refused" are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adult (18+) women with gestational diabetes, crude rate, by marital status, all Alaskans, 2010-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Marital StatusYearPercentage of adult womenLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 40
Married20102.2%1.1%4.7%18979
Married20112.4%1.6%3.5%451,781
Married20121.8%1.1%2.8%432,382
Married20131.7%1.2%2.5%562,656
Married20142.1%1.3%3.5%442,677
Married20152.6%1.6%4.2%482,418
Married20162.0%1.2%3.6%352,209
Married20171.3%0.9%2.0%381,910
Widowed2010**191
Widowed2011**333
Widowed2012**477
Widowed2013**530
Widowed2014**540
Widowed2015**527
Widowed2016**505
Widowed2017**462
Divorced/Separated20101.6%0.6%4.4%7299
Divorced/Separated20113.3%1.6%6.7%18612
Divorced/Separated20121.7%0.6%4.6%12757
Divorced/Separated20131.1%0.4%2.7%13856
Divorced/Separated20141.1%0.6%2.0%11842
Divorced/Separated20152.8%0.9%8.4%7679
Divorced/Separated20160.6%0.3%1.6%7611
Divorced/Separated20171.8%0.4%6.8%7471
Never Married20102.2%0.9%5.6%6225
Never Married20112.1%0.8%5.4%8416
Never Married2012**623
Never Married20131.1%0.4%3.2%11644
Never Married20141.0%0.3%2.8%5581
Never Married20155.2%2.2%11.8%14495
Never Married20162.3%0.6%8.4%5485
Never Married20172.2%0.7%6.8%7471
Living with a Partner2010**69
Living with a Partner20115.2%1.8%14.4%6148
Living with a Partner20122.8%1.1%7.0%7197
Living with a Partner20138.4%3.0%21.2%10231
Living with a Partner2014**197
Living with a Partner2015**184
Living with a Partner2016**138
Living with a Partner20173.6%1.0%11.8%5158

Data Notes

The BRFSS is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. Data from birth certificates and health records can provide more accurate estimates on the prevalence of gestational diabetes among pregnant women.   Marital status is determined by the question, "Are you ...?" with responses of "Married", 'Divorced", "Widowed", "Separated", "Never married," or "A member of an unmarried couple". Responses of "Refused" are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adult (25+) women with gestational diabetes, crude rate, by education, all Alaskans, 2010-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Edu Level: LT High School, High School, Some College, College GradYearPercentage of adult womenLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 32
LT High School2010**97
LT High School20114.9%2.1%11.0%8192
LT High School2012**251
LT High School20133.7%1.4%9.7%5224
LT High School20142.7%0.7%9.6%5198
LT High School2015**175
LT High School2016**155
LT High School2017**165
High School20101.9%0.8%4.6%7439
High School20112.2%1.1%4.6%11775
High School20122.0%1.0%3.9%18979
High School20130.9%0.5%1.6%161,058
High School20141.1%0.4%2.8%71,018
High School20152.6%1.1%6.2%15921
High School20161.9%1.0%3.5%16854
High School20172.2%0.9%5.0%17755
Some College20101.2%0.5%2.8%9518
Some College20113.2%1.8%5.4%28933
Some College20121.8%1.0%3.4%191,283
Some College20132.3%1.0%4.8%251,441
Some College20142.3%1.2%4.6%181,358
Some College20153.5%1.9%6.4%211,294
Some College20161.1%0.5%2.4%141,184
Some College20170.6%0.3%1.4%101,057
College Graduate20101.6%0.7%3.7%12616
College Graduate20112.1%1.3%3.5%271,162
College Graduate20121.3%0.7%2.4%251,600
College Graduate20132.2%1.3%3.6%421,840
College Graduate20141.9%1.2%2.8%361,979
College Graduate20152.0%1.1%3.6%311,724
College Graduate20162.5%1.1%5.8%181,568
College Graduate20172.0%1.0%3.9%291,407

Data Notes

The BRFSS is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. Data from birth certificates and health records can provide more accurate estimates on the prevalence of gestational diabetes among pregnant women.   Education is based upon education completed by or after 25 years of age. Individuals less than 25 years of age are excluded. Education is assessed by responses to the question: "What is the highest grade or year of school you completed?" Responses are "Never attended school or only attended kindergarten", "Grades 1 through 8 (Elementary)", "Grades 9 through 11 (Some high school)", "Grade 12 (High School Graduate)", "College 1 year to 3 years (Some college or technical school)", "College 4 years or more (College graduate)", or "Refused". Refusals are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adult (18+) women with gestational diabetes, crude rate, by employment status, all Alaskans, 2010-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: EmploymentYearPercentage of adult womenLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 32
Employed20102.1%1.0%4.2%211,052
Employed20112.6%1.7%4.0%471,891
Employed20121.7%1.1%2.7%432,553
Employed20132.3%1.4%3.8%592,722
Employed20141.6%1.0%2.8%392,706
Employed20153.5%2.2%5.7%472,354
Employed20162.0%1.0%4.1%282,064
Employed20171.5%0.9%2.5%381,931
Unemployed2010**110
Unemployed20115.6%2.5%12.2%10212
Unemployed2012**263
Unemployed20132.0%0.6%6.9%6291
Unemployed20141.9%0.6%5.7%6217
Unemployed2015**192
Unemployed20161.6%0.5%5.2%6196
Unemployed2017**165
Not In Work Force20101.9%0.9%4.1%9511
Not In Work Force20111.9%1.2%3.1%211,026
Not In Work Force20121.4%0.7%2.8%171,387
Not In Work Force20130.9%0.6%1.6%251,638
Not In Work Force20141.3%0.6%3.0%171,643
Not In Work Force20151.8%0.7%4.5%191,522
Not In Work Force20161.9%1.0%3.5%161,461
Not In Work Force20170.7%0.4%1.3%151,236
Unable to Work2010**90
Unable to Work2011**176
Unable to Work20120.7%0.2%2.1%5248
Unable to Work2013**262
Unable to Work2014**273
Unable to Work20152.1%0.4%9.4%5228
Unable to Work2016**207
Unable to Work20179.1%3.0%24.6%5228

Data Notes

The BRFSS is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. Data from birth certificates and health records can provide more accurate estimates on the prevalence of gestational diabetes among pregnant women.   Employment status is assessed by the question: "Are you currently ...?" with responses of "Employed for wages", "Self-employed", "Out of work for 1 year or more", "Out of work for less than 1 year", "A Homemaker", "A Student", "Retired", "Unable to work" or "Refused". Refusals are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adult (18+) women with gestational diabetes, crude rate, by income, all Alaskans, 2010-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Income: LT $15k, $15k-$25k, $25k-$50k, $50-$75k, $75k+YearPercentage of adult womenLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 40
<$15,0002010**122
<$15,00020114.0%1.4%10.9%6261
<$15,00020120.5%0.2%1.3%5354
<$15,00020131.4%0.4%5.0%5402
<$15,00020140.9%0.4%2.2%6356
<$15,0002015**321
<$15,0002016**264
<$15,00020178.6%3.0%22.2%88274
$15,000 - $24,99920103.0%1.0%8.7%5176
$15,000 - $24,99920113.6%1.6%7.7%14384
$15,000 - $24,99920121.2%0.3%3.9%6521
$15,000 - $24,99920131.7%0.6%4.8%9611
$15,000 - $24,99920143.1%1.4%7.1%9553
$15,000 - $24,99920156.3%2.5%15.0%13490
$15,000 - $24,9992016**455
$15,000 - $24,99920171.5%0.3%6.4%6470
$25,000 - $49,99920102.7%0.6%10.8%6366
$25,000 - $49,99920113.1%1.4%6.5%13628
$25,000 - $49,99920121.6%0.8%3.5%13912
$25,000 - $49,99920131.1%0.6%2.1%19982
$25,000 - $49,99920141.7%0.5%4.9%11965
$25,000 - $49,99920152.2%1.0%4.6%13804
$25,000 - $49,99920162.5%0.9%6.8%14779
$25,000 - $49,99920170.8%0.3%1.8%12681
$50,000 - $74,99920101.4%0.5%4.1%5279
$50,000 - $74,99920111.9%0.9%3.8%12520
$50,000 - $74,99920121.5%0.7%3.4%13690
$50,000 - $74,99920133.0%1.6%5.5%20787
$50,000 - $74,99920142.9%1.2%6.5%13741
$50,000 - $74,99920152.8%1.1%7.4%11690
$50,000 - $74,99920162.0%0.7%5.7%7579
$50,000 - $74,99920171.3%0.5%3.6%5528
$75,000+20101.2%0.6%2.7%9542
$75,000+20112.4%1.5%3.9%271,008
$75,000+20121.3%0.7%2.6%191,288
$75,000+20131.9%0.9%4.3%311,625
$75,000+20141.5%0.8%2.7%251,717
$75,000+20152.5%1.3%4.8%271,557
$75,000+20161.3%0.7%2.2%181,423
$75,000+20171.4%0.9%2.3%261,243

Data Notes

The BRFSS is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. Data from birth certificates and health records can provide more accurate estimates on the prevalence of gestational diabetes among pregnant women.   Income is measure by the question: "Is your annual household income from all sources ---" with categories of "Less than $10,000", "Less than $15,000", "less than $20,000", "less than $25,000", "less than $35,000", "less than $50,000", "less than $75,000", "$75,000 or more", and "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused". Responses of "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused" are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adult (18+) women with gestational diabetes, crude rate, by poverty threshold, all Alaskans, 2010-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Poverty thresholds are intended for use as a statistical yardstick, not as a complete description of what people and families need to live. Poverty thresholds are the dollar amounts assigned by the U.S. Census Bureau to determine poverty status. Poverty thresholds are assigned based upon the size of the family and the ages of the members (i.e., adults versus children). The same thresholds are used throughout the United States. Poverty thresholds were originally derived in the 1963-1964 using U.S. Department of Agriculture food budgets designed for families under economic stress and data about what proportion of their income families spent on food. The thresholds are updated annually for inflation using the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U). How the Census Bureau Measures Poverty - U.S. Census Bureau [https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/about/overview/measure.html]
HA: Poverty ThresholdYearPercentage of adult womenLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 24
Poor2010**111
Poor20118.6%4.3%16.7%12234
Poor20121.0%0.4%2.8%8350
Poor20131.7%0.6%5.2%6379
Poor20141.6%0.7%4.0%9316
Poor20153.6%1.4%9.2%10262
Poor2016**183
Poor20177.8%2.7%20.4%8228
Near Poor2010**248
Near Poor20114.1%1.6%10.0%12403
Near Poor20121.7%0.7%4.0%11648
Near Poor20131.9%0.9%4.3%17749
Near Poor20144.1%1.9%8.8%13648
Near Poor20151.2%0.3%4.3%5480
Near Poor20163.3%0.7%14.8%5433
Near Poor20171.4%0.3%5.7%10604
Middle/High20101.7%0.8%3.8%201,126
Middle/High20112.3%1.6%3.3%462,015
Middle/High20121.3%0.8%2.1%372,767
Middle/High20131.8%1.1%3.0%613,279
Middle/High20141.5%0.9%2.3%423,368
Middle/High20151.7%0.9%3.0%372,648
Middle/High20161.4%0.8%2.4%282,400
Middle/High20171.3%0.8%1.9%372,264

Data Notes

The BRFSS is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. Data from birth certificates and health records can provide more accurate estimates on the prevalence of gestational diabetes among pregnant women.   Poverty thresholds computed using the BRFSS assume that householders are less than 65 years of age as the ages of the household heads are not recorded. The maximum of the income range provided for the household is used to evaluate the proportion of the poverty threshold. This is a conservative approach as there are no errors of misclassification into the lowest poverty group. The category of Poor represents less than 100% of the poverty threshold. Near Poor is 100% through 199% of the poverty threshold. Middle/High income families are 200% or higher of the poverty threshold. How the Census Bureau Measures Poverty - U.S. Census Bureau [https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/about/overview/measure.html]

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adult (18+) women with gestational diabetes, crude rate, by body mass index, all Alaskans, 2015-2017 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Weight CategoryPercentage of womenLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 3
Neither Overweight nor Obese1.9%1.1%3.3%474,055
Overweight1.9%1.2%3.2%583,423
Obese2.7%1.8%4.0%693,347

Data Notes

The BRFSS is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. Data from birth certificates and health records can provide more accurate estimates on the prevalence of gestational diabetes among pregnant women.   Body Mass Index (BMI) is computed based upon responses to the questions, "About how much do you weight without shoes?" and "About how tall are you without shoes?" Responses of "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused" to either questions are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adult (18+) women with gestational diabetes, crude rate, Alaska Public Health Regions, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adult womenLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 14
All AlaskansAnchorage1.1%0.4%3.1%7615
All AlaskansGulf Coast**525
All AlaskansInterior2.2%1.2%4.1%20863
All AlaskansMat-Su1.7%0.9%3.4%11588
All AlaskansNorthern3.9%1.2%12.1%5152
All AlaskansSoutheast0.7%0.2%1.9%6559
All AlaskansSouthwest4.6%1.2%16.1%10320
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage**70
Alaska Native peopleGulf Coast**47
Alaska Native peopleInterior**156
Alaska Native peopleMat-Su**64
Alaska Native peopleNorthern5.5%1.6%17.0%592
Alaska Native peopleSoutheast**76
Alaska Native peopleSouthwest8.3%2.2%26.6%10175

Data Notes

The BRFSS is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. Data from birth certificates and health records can provide more accurate estimates on the prevalence of gestational diabetes among pregnant women.   Geographic descriptions of the public health regions can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_phr.aspx].

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adult (18+) women with gestational diabetes, crude rate, by metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015-2017 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adult womenLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 10
All AlaskansAnchorage MSA2.2%1.5%3.3%543,926
All AlaskansFairbanks North Star MSA1.7%1.1%2.7%261,854
All AlaskansJuneau MicroSA1.6%0.8%3.5%13749
All AlaskansKetchikan Gateway MicroSA1.7%0.6%4.4%5379
All AlaskansRural (non-Metro/MicroSA)2.2%1.4%3.4%885,048
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage MSA3.6%1.3%9.2%10383
Alaska Native peopleFairbanks North Star MSA**196
Alaska Native peopleJuneau MicroSA**90
Alaska Native peopleKetchikan Gateway MicroSA**66
Alaska Native peopleRural (non-Metro/MicroSA)4.3%2.2%8.0%461,519

Data Notes

The BRFSS is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. Data from birth certificates and health records can provide more accurate estimates on the prevalence of gestational diabetes among pregnant women.   Geographic descriptions of the metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_mmsa.aspx].

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adult (18+) women with gestational diabetes, crude rate, by behavioral health system assessment areas, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adult womenLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 22
All AlaskansAnchorage Muncipality1.1%0.4%3.1%7615
All AlaskansFairbanks North Star Borough2.4%1.2%4.6%12542
All AlaskansCity and Borough of Juneau**218
All AlaskansKenai Peninsula Borough**382
All AlaskansMatanuska-Susitna Borough1.7%0.9%3.4%11588
All AlaskansNorthwest Region3.9%1.2%12.1%5152
All AlaskansOther Interior Region0.9%0.4%2.0%8390
All AlaskansOther SE - Northern**189
All AlaskansOther SE - Southern**152
All AlaskansY-K Delta Region9.9%1.9%38.2%5126
All AlaskansSouthwest Region0.5%0.2%1.4%5268
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage Muncipality**70
Alaska Native peopleFairbanks North Star Borough**55
Alaska Native peopleCity and Borough of Juneau**25
Alaska Native peopleKenai Peninsula Borough**27
Alaska Native peopleMatanuska-Susitna Borough**64
Alaska Native peopleNorthwest Region5.5%1.6%17.0%592
Alaska Native peopleOther Interior Region**109
Alaska Native peopleOther SE - Northern**27
Alaska Native peopleOther SE - Southern**24
Alaska Native peopleY-K Delta Region12.5%2.5%44.4%588
Alaska Native peopleSouthwest Region1.6%0.6%4.6%599

Data Notes

The BRFSS is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. Data from birth certificates and health records can provide more accurate estimates on the prevalence of gestational diabetes among pregnant women.   Geographic descriptions of the behavioral health systems assessment reporting regions can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_bhs.aspx].

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adult (18+) women with gestational diabetes, crude rate, by tribal health organization regions, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2013-2017 (5-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of adult womenLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 24
All AlaskansAleutians and Pribilofs2.0%0.9%4.8%10432
All AlaskansAnchorage/Mat-Su2.1%1.6%2.8%1127,524
All AlaskansArctic Slope1.4%0.6%3.2%7226
All AlaskansBristol Bay1.1%0.6%1.9%15636
All AlaskansCopper R/Prince William Snd.2.5%0.9%7.2%6487
All AlaskansInterior1.7%1.2%2.3%754,698
All AlaskansKenai Peninsula2.3%1.1%4.7%252,455
All AlaskansKodiak Area1.4%0.6%3.0%13443
All AlaskansNorthwest Arctic4.5%1.8%10.3%8249
All AlaskansNorton Sound2.1%0.9%5.0%10380
All AlaskansSoutheast1.4%0.9%2.0%483,403
All AlaskansYukon-Kuskokwim3.2%1.3%7.4%19863
Alaska Native peopleAleutians and Pribilofs5.3%1.9%13.5%8164
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage/Mat-Su3.2%1.5%6.9%16743
Alaska Native peopleArctic Slope1.9%0.7%4.8%5123
Alaska Native peopleBristol Bay1.6%0.8%3.1%11335
Alaska Native peopleCopper R/Prince William Snd.**63
Alaska Native peopleInterior2.3%1.1%4.7%14699
Alaska Native peopleKenai Peninsula**188
Alaska Native peopleKodiak Area**76
Alaska Native peopleNorthwest Arctic5.5%2.3%12.6%8171
Alaska Native peopleNorton Sound2.4%0.9%6.3%8231
Alaska Native peopleSoutheast2.1%1.0%4.5%13547
Alaska Native peopleYukon-Kuskokwim3.6%1.4%9.1%17587

Data Notes

The BRFSS is a readily available source for estimating gestational diabetes prevalence for Alaska. Data from birth certificates and health records can provide more accurate estimates on the prevalence of gestational diabetes among pregnant women.   Geographic descriptions of the tribal health organization regions can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_thr.aspx].

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

References and Community Resources

'''References:''' 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Gestational diabetes and pregnancy. http://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/diabetes-gestational.html. Accessed September 13, 2017. 2. Gestational Diabetes. http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/gestationalDiabetes.pdf 3. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is-diabetes/gestational. Accessed September 18, 2017. 4. Lee AJ, Hiscock RJ, Wein P, Walker SP, Permezel M. Gestational diabetes mellitus: clinical predictors and long-term risk of developing type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study using survival analysis. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(4):878-883. doi: 10.2337/dc06-1816 5. American Diabetes Association. Gestational diabetes. http://www.diabetes.org/are-you-at-risk/lower-your-risk/gdm.html. Accessed September 18, 2017. '''Resources:''' Alaska Diabetes Prevention and Control Program: http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/Diabetes/types/gestational.aspx March of Dimes: http://www.marchofdimes.org/complications/gestational-diabetes.aspx American Diabetes Association (ADA) [http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/gestational/] Recommendations for Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus [http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsgdm.htm] American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology [http://www.acog.org]

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Alaska health promotion resources may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

AK-IBIS Web Citation

Use and reproduction of the information published on this website are encouraged and may be done without permission. The following citation should accompany information from this website whenever it is used, reproduced, or published:

AK-IBIS Indicator Citation:
"[Indicator name]. Retrieved on [insert date] from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Example:
Diabetes Prevalence. Retrieved on March 25, 2016, from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Page Content Updated On 09/28/2018, Published on 01/14/2019
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sun, 15 September 2019 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 13:59:28 AKST
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sun, 15 September 2019 1:37:37 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 13:59:28 AKST