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State of Alaska

Complete Health Indicator Report of Chlamydia Cases (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 18)

Definition

Rate of newly reported cases of Chlamydia trachomatis by date of diagnosis per 100,000 population.

Numerator

Number of newly reported cases of chlamydia by date of diagnosis for a specific time period.

Denominator

Mid-year resident population for the specific time period.

Why Is This Important?

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is the most commonly reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the US and in Alaska. Chlamydia is known as a 'silent' infection because most infected people have no symptoms. Untreated CT infection can cause pre-term labor, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, and infertility in women; epididymitis and Reiter's syndrome in men; and eye infection and pneumonia in newborns. Alaska has consistently had the first or second highest (CT) infection rate in the nation since 2000.^1^[[br]] [[br]] {{class .SmallerFont 1. CDC. [2010 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance. http://www.cdc.gov/std/Chlamydia2010/default.htm Chlamydia Profiles] 2010. }}

Healthy People Objective: Reduce the proportion of adolescents and young adults with Chlamydia trachomatis infections

U.S. Target: Not applicable, see subobjectives in this category
State Target: Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 705.2 per 100,000

Other Objectives

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Indicator 18: Reduce the incidence rate of Chlamydia trachomatis to 705.2 per 100,000 by 2020.

How Are We Doing?

Chlamydia rates in Alaska have increased since 2000. This can be attributed to increased screening efforts, use of increasingly sensitive diagnostic testing, efforts to increase reporting by providers and laboratories, and improved information systems for reporting. Such increased rates can be interpreted as an advancement in chlamydia infection control as more infections are identified and treated, providing opportunity to intervene in the spread of infection. Chlamydia infections in both men and women are commonly asymptomatic, yet screenings occurring mostly among females produce higher rates of reported infections. However, with the increased availability of urine testing, men are increasingly being tested for Chlamydial infection.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

Chlamydia rates in Alaska are significantly higher than rates in the U.S.

What Is Being Done?

Persons who test positive for chlamydia are confidentially interviewed by a local public health nurse to educate the patient, ensure proper treatment, and to obtain sexual partner information for follow up. This process helps prevent reported cases from spreading disease and the patient from becoming reinfected.

Evidence-based Practices

As part of the Healthy Alaskans 2020 health improvement process, groups of Alaskan subject matter experts met over a period of months in a rigorous review process to identify and prioritize strategies to address the 25 health priorities. Public health partners around the state are aligning work around these approaches adapted to Alaska's unique needs. '''Strategy 1:''' [[br]]Increase awareness of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and demand for STD testing. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]Alaska's Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) case reports and rates have increased since reporting began in 1996. Alaska has ranked first or second in the nation for CT rates since 2000. Chlamydia is the most commonly reported notifiable disease in the U. S. In 2012, CDC reported the highest ever number of reported chlamydial infections. Cases and rates of chlamydial infections in females have increased each year. Overall rates in males are about one-half of the rates in females. CDC reports that lower rates in men may suggest that many of the sex partners of women with chlamydia are not receiving a diagnosis of chlamydia or being reported as having CT. '''Source:''' [[br]]CDC - [http://www.cdc.gov/STD/stats12/chlamydia.htm Chlamydia] '''Strategy 2:''' [[br]]Increase the identification, testing, and treatment of sexual partners of individuals infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]Partner Services, the elicitation and confidential notification of sexual partners, is essential in preventing and controlling sexually transmitted disease, including CT. The use of public health resources to identify infected persons, elicit and notify their partners of their possible exposure, and provide infected persons and their partners linkage to medical care and STD prevention series results in the following: 1) prevention of clinical disease; 2) decreased complication from infection; and 3) reduced STD/HIV transmission. '''Sources:''' [[br]][http://www.cdc.gov/std/program/partners.htm CDC - Partner Services] [[br]] [[br]]CDC - MMWR Recommendations:[http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5709a1.htm#How_These_Recommendations_Differ_from_Previous_Partner_Services_Guidelines How these recommendations differ from previous partner services guidelines]. '''Strategy 3:''' [[br]]Increase annual Chlamydia screening of sexually active women age 25 years and younger and older women with risk factors. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine Chlamydia screening for all sexually active females age 25 and younger annually, and for older females who report risk factors for STD, as one of the top Chlamydia prevention and control strategies. Screening programs reduce both the prevalence of chlamydia infection and rates of pelvic inflammatory disease. This screening recommendation follows published federal agency and medical professional organizations' clinical guidelines. '''Source:''' [[br]][http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2010/specialpops.htm CDC - Sexually Transmitted Disease Treatment Guidelines] A listing of strategies, actions, and key partners on this measure can be found at: [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/Actions-Partners_18_Chlamydia.pdf]

Available Services

Federallly Qualified Health Centers have STD clinics where adolescents can be tested and treated for STDs at minimal or no cost. Planned Parenthood has locations throughout Alaska that also provide STD services at minimal cost. Condoms are available at these locations.

Health Program Information

[http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5115a1.htm CDC Screening Guidelines] [[br]][http://www.cdc.gov/std Update- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention website] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats08/default.htm Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2008]. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, November 2009. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment Sexually Transmitted Disease Treatment Guidelines 2006].


Related Indicators

Relevant Population Characteristics

Due to anatomical and hormonal differences, women are more susceptible to acquiring chlamydia than men. Therefore, women carry an excessive proportion of the chlamydia burden. Adolescent and young adult males and females have a higher incidence of chlamydia. This can be attributed to increased risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adults, biochemical differences increasing transmission rates, and increased screening among this age group.

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Health Care System Factors

Chlamydia rates in Alaska have generally increased since 2000. This can be attributed to increased screening efforts, use of increasingly sensitive diagnostic testing, efforts to increase reporting by providers and laboratories, and improved information systems for reporting.

Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Risk Factors

Risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases include: - sexual activity among young adults 25 and younger - multiple sex partners - prior history of STDs - unprotected sex - sexual contact with prostitutes (male or female) - illicit drug use Those who fall within one or more of these categories should be tested for STDs in regular intervals. Sites of infection may include pharynx, rectum, vagina, cervix, and urethra. Due to anatomical and biochemical differences, women are also at increased risk for acquiring chlamydia than men.

Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Health Status Outcomes

Untreated chlamydia in women may advance to PID (pelvic inflammatory disease), resulting in an ectopic pregnancy, preterm delivery, or infertility. Untreated chlamydia in men may result in infertility.

Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Chlamydia trachomatis rate (crude rate), all Alaskans, Alaska Natives, and U.S., 2001-2020

::chart - missing::

Alaska ComparisonsYearChlamydia trachomatis cases per 100,000 population
Record Count: 47
All Alaskans2001430.1
All Alaskans2002589.0
All Alaskans2003596.8
All Alaskans2004604.4
All Alaskans2005650.7
All Alaskans2006670.6
All Alaskans2007719.4
All Alaskans2008707.3
All Alaskans2009748.8
All Alaskans2010849.6
All Alaskans2011803.3
All Alaskans2012731.0
All Alaskans2013786.5
Alaska Natives20011,155.6
Alaska Natives20021,477.2
Alaska Natives20031,617.9
Alaska Natives20041,637.7
Alaska Natives20051,866.9
Alaska Natives20062,007.4
Alaska Natives20072,078.5
Alaska Natives20082,140.2
Alaska Natives20092,237.8
Alaska Natives20102,394.3
Alaska Natives20112,285.6
Alaska Natives20122,545.0
Alaska Natives20132,601.0
U.S.2001274.5
U.S.2002289.4
U.S.2003301.7
U.S.2004316.5
U.S.2005329.4
U.S.2006344.3
U.S.2007367.5
U.S.2008398.1
U.S.2009405.3
U.S.2010423.6
U.S.2011453.4
U.S.2012453.3
U.S.2013446.6
Healthy Alaskans Goal2013705.2
Healthy Alaskans Goal2014705.2
Healthy Alaskans Goal2015705.2
Healthy Alaskans Goal2016705.2
Healthy Alaskans Goal2017705.2
Healthy Alaskans Goal2018705.2
Healthy Alaskans Goal2019705.2
Healthy Alaskans Goal2020705.2

Data Notes

Rates are not age-adjusted.

Data Sources

  • Sexually Transmitted Disease Program, Section of Epidemiology, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services
  • National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

References and Community Resources

'''References:''' 1. CDC. 2010 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance. [http://www.cdc.gov/std/Chlamydia2010/default.htm Chlamydia Profiles, 2010]. '''Resources:''' [http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5115a1.htm Screening Guidelines] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, [http://www.cdc.gov/std Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats08/default.htm Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2008]. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, November 2009 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment Sexually Transmitted Disease Treatment Guidelines 2006]

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Alaska health promotion resources may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

AK-IBIS Web Citation

Use and reproduction of the information published on this website are encouraged and may be done without permission. The following citation should accompany information from this website whenever it is used, reproduced, or published:

AK-IBIS Indicator Citation:
"[Indicator name]. Retrieved on [insert date] from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Example:
Diabetes Prevalence. Retrieved on March 25, 2016, from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Page Content Updated On 02/03/2016, Published on 02/03/2016
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Mon, 29 August 2016 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Wed, 3 Feb 2016 15:53:58 AKST
The information provided above is from the Department of Health's Center for Health Data IBIS-PH web site (http://ibis.health.state.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Mon, 29 August 2016 11:49:02 from Department of Health, Center for Health Data, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.state.gov ".

Content updated: Wed, 3 Feb 2016 15:53:58 AKST