Complete Indicator Profile of Child Abuse and Neglect (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 11)
DefinitionThe rate of substantiated victims or allegations of child abuse per 1,000 children under age 18. Child abuse and neglect is defined as any any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation; or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm.
Child abuse and neglect is defined as any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation; or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm.
NumeratorNumber of substantiated victims or allegations of child abuse and/or neglect among children under age 18.
DenominatorMid-year resident population under age 18 for the same calendar year.
Why Is This Important?The prevalence of sexual violence and intimate partner violence is a major public health concern in Alaska. Witnessing or being a victim of domestic violence is associated with high rates of fair-to-poor assessments of general health, asthma diagnoses, current smoking, and lack of emotional support. Individuals diagnosed with anxiety and/or depression have some of the highest prevalence of sexual and intimate partner violence. Child abuse and neglect are a longstanding concern in Alaska, associated with poor health status in childhood and adulthood. Study findings suggest that adverse childhood experiences are major risk factors for the leading causes of illness and death as well as poor quality of life.
Healthy People Objective IVP-38:Reduce nonfatal child maltreatment
U.S. Target: 8.5 maltreatment victims per 1,000 children aged 17 years and under
State Target: Healthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 14.4 per 1,000 children aged 17 years and under
Evidence-based PracticesAs part of the Healthy Alaskans 2020 health improvement process, groups of Alaskan subject matter experts met over a period of months in a rigorous review process to identify and prioritize strategies to address the 25 health priorities. Public health partners around the state are aligning work around these approaches adapted to Alaska's unique needs. Below are the strategies identified for enhancing adolescent support systems.*
Promote screening and monitoring for child abuse in primary care offices and public health clinics.
Medical offices are uniquely positioned to identify risk and provide appropriate interventions and referrals to children, youth and adults at risk of developmental delay, neglect, maltreatment, or interpersonal violence. Identifying children with developmental disorders or at risk for toxic stress is the first step in providing needed interventions and targeted support for their parents and other caregivers. Research has demonstrated that children receiving developmental screening were more likely to be identified, eligible, and referred for services. Parents use developmental screening opportunities to communicate additional concerns regarding their child. This strategy implements practice
changes in primary care offices and public health clinics to include regular comprehensive screening of children for developmental delays, social and emotional concerns, and exposure to high risk environments; provision of parenting information and support; screening for depression, domestic violence and substance abuse for pregnant women and new parents; and provision of information about healthy relationships and the health effects of victimization to adults and adolescents.
Use the Strengthening Families Protective Factors framework in family programs.
The Center for the Study of Social Policy, the creator of the Strengthening Families Protective Factors framework, worked with the Erickson Institute to conduct a scan of existing research about conditions related to a lower incidence of child abuse and neglect. Several "protective factors" emerged. The protective factors related to families include: parental resilience, an array of social connections, adequate knowledge of parenting and child development, and support in times of need, including access to necessary services such as mental health. The protective factor related to children is their healthy social and emotional development.
Expand home visiting programs.
Early childhood home visitation programs, including Nurse Family Partnerships, Parents as Teachers, Early Head Start, Head Start, and Infant Learning Programs, are recommended to prevent child maltreatment and reducing violence against visited children. Programs delivered by professional visitors (i.e. nurses or mental health workers) seem more effective than programs delivered by paraprofessionals, although programs delivered by paraprofessionals for ≥2 years also appear to be effective in reducing child maltreatment. Home visitation programs in this review were offered to teenage parents, single mothers, families of low socioeconomic status (SES), families with very low birth weight infants, parents previously investigated for child maltreatment, and parents with alcohol, drug, or mental health problems.
Expand and strengthen quality early childhood programs.
Train Providers on brain development, adverse childhood experiences (ACES), and resiliency.
* Sources for strategies can be found at http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/EBS/HA2020_EBS11_ChildAbuseAndNeglect.pdf
** Evidence Base information for Strategy 4 and Strategy 5 can be found at http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/EBS/HA2020_EBS11_ChildAbuseAndNeglect.pdf
Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicator Profiles:
Related Health Care System Factors Indicator Profiles:
Related Risk Factors Indicator Profiles:
Related Health Status Outcomes Indicator Profiles:
Graphical Data Views
Rate of unique substantiated child maltreatment victims per 1,000 children (aged 0-17 years), all Alaskans and U.S., 2006-2020
Data NotesHealthy Alaskans 2020 Target: 14.4 per 1,000 children aged 17 years and under
These data show substantiated reported cases rather than actual incidence.
More Resources and LinksAlaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:
Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:
Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:
Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:
Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.
For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.
Page Content Updated On 12/04/2014, Published on 12/31/2014