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State of Alaska

Complete Health Indicator Report of Cancer Screening - Female Breast (Mammography) - Women (Ages 50-74)

Definition

Percentage of females 50-74 years of age who reported having a mammogram in the last two years on the [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)].

Numerator

Weighted number of females 50-74 years of age who responded "Yes" on the BRFSS to the question: "A mammogram is an x-ray of each breast to look for breast cancer. Have you ever had a mammogram?" and then either "Within the past year (anytime less than 12 months ago)" or "Within the past 2 years (1 year but less than 2 year ago)" to the question: "How long has it been since you had your last mammogram?"

Denominator

Weighted number of females 50-74 years of age who responded to the BRFSS question on ever having a mammogram and, if so, provided the timing of the last mammogram, excluding those with missing, "Don't Know/Not sure", or "Refused" responses.

Data Interpretation Issues

Since 2000, the breast cancer screening questions have only been administered in the BRFSS in even-numbered years. Data are presented based upon the current U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation that women aged 50-74 years of age have a mammogram every 2 years.^1^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Final recommendation statement: breast cancer: screening. [http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/breast-cancer-screening1]. Updated January 2016. Accessed April 12, 2016. }}

Why Is This Important?

Recent data for the United States suggest why screening for female breast cancer is important. In 2016, 22.4% of women 50-74 years of age had not had a mammogram within the previous 2 years. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. In 2016, female breast cancer caused approximately 41,500 deaths.^2^ Approximately 245,000 new cases of invasive female breast cancer are diagnosed annually.^2^ For women of all ages at average risk, screening was associated with a reduction in breast cancer mortality of approximately 20%.^3^ Women with higher education and income tend to exceed Healthy People 2020 goals. Adults without insurance have the lowest screening rates. Cancer screening rates are short of the goal. Because disproportionately more American Indian/Alaska Native women are younger at diagnosis for breast cancer, screening beginning at age 40 is recommended.^4^ [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 2. U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool, based on November 2018 submission data (1999-2016): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute; www.cdc.gov/cancer/dataviz, June 2019. Accessed September 3, 2019. 3. Myers ER, Moorman P, Gierisch JM, Havrilesky LJ, et al. Benefits and harms of breast cancer screening. JAMA 2015;314(15):1615-34. 4. Roubidoux MA. Breast cancer and screening in American Indian and Alaska Native women. J Cancer Educ 2012;27(1 Suppl):S66-72. }}

Healthy People Objective: Increase the proportion of women who receive a breast cancer screening based on the most recent guidelines

U.S. Target: 81.1 percent

How Are We Doing?

In 2018, rates for screening mammograms within the past two years for those females between 50 and 74 years of age were 73.0% for all Alaska women and 83.4% for Alaska Native women. Screening rates in Alaska have declined from being above 80% in the 2000 to 2002 period to the current rate of 73.0%. Female breast cancer screening rates from the BRFSS are initially presented for all Alaskans, Alaska Native people, and the median from states, District of Columbia, and territories for all available years. Subsequent analyses by demographic subpopulations (i.e., age, marital status, education, employment status, income, and Medicaid eligibility status) are available from 1991 and later. Crosstabulations by current smoking, sexual orientation, and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) score were conducted for the 3-year average of 2014-2018. Breast cancer screening prevalence by regions of Alaska are presented for the 5-year average time period of 2010-2018 allowing reporting for all Alaskans and Alaska Native people: 1) 7 Alaska Public Health Regions, 2) 11 behavioral health assessment regions based upon aggregations of 20,000 population, and 3) 12 tribal health organization regions. Special tables on screening rates starting at age 40, recommended for Alaska Native women, are included for all Alaskans and Alaska Native women for the period of 1991-2018 and by tribal health organization regions.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

Alaska screening mammogram rates have been below the U.S. median of states since 2004. Declines in screening rates have been higher in Alaska than the U.S. as a whole since 2006.

What Is Being Done?

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/wcfh/Pages/ladiesfirst/default.aspx Ladies First] is dedicated to improving access to high-quality breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services for women who are underserved. Ladies First also works to increase public awareness through education about prevention, disease processes, and the importance of appropriate screening for early detection.

Evidence-based Practices

The [https://www.thecommunityguide.org/ Guide to Community Preventive Services] is a resource to help choose programs and policies to improve health and prevent disease in communities. The Community Guide for Cancer Screening recommends client reminders, small media, group education, reducing structural barriers, and reducing client out-of-pocket costs to increase cancer screening.^5^ [[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 5. The Community Guide: Cancer.[https://www.thecommunityguide.org/topic/cancer]. Accessed September 23, 2019. }}

Health Program Information

In collaboration with four Tribal National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program grantees, Department of Health and Social Services' Ladies First program is working to increase both public and provider awareness about breast and cervical cancer screening recommendations as well as access to services throughout the state. Ladies First is federally funded through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and can cover the cost of screening and diagnostic tests for low income women who are under or uninsured. For more information about eligibility of services visit the Ladies First website at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/wcfh/Pages/ladiesfirst/default.aspx].


Related Indicators

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Health Care System Factors

According to data collected by the Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, use of mammography is lower among women without health insurance compared to women with health insurance. Mammography is a preventive service covered by Medicare.

Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Risk Factors

The most important risk factor for breast cancer is increasing age. Other established risk factors include personal or family history of breast cancer, history of abnormal breast biopsy, genetic alterations, early age at onset of menses, late age at onset of menopause, never having children or having a first live birth at age 30 or older, and history of exposure to high dose radiation. Associations have also been suggested between breast cancer and oral contraceptives, long-term use of hormone replacement therapy, obesity (in post-menopausal women), alcohol, and a diet high in fat. Some studies suggest that exercise in youth might give life-long protection against breast cancer and that even moderate physical activity as an adult could lower breast cancer risk. More research is needed to confirm these findings.

Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Health Status Outcomes

Routine screening with mammography is an important tool in the early detection of breast cancer and early detection can save lives.

Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Percentage of women (50-74) who reported having a screening mammogram within the past two years, by all Alaskans, Alaska Natives, and U.S., 1991-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsYearPercentage of women (50-74)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 58
All Alaskans199170.4%59.7%79.2%103161
All Alaskans199272.6%61.1%81.7%99153
All Alaskans199368.2%53.9%79.7%104146
All Alaskans199484.5%76.4%90.1%142181
All Alaskans199577.1%67.2%84.7%142190
All Alaskans199681.1%71.4%88.1%154195
All Alaskans199778.6%68.6%86.1%167210
All Alaskans199879.8%70.7%86.6%188233
All Alaskans199977.3%68.5%84.2%198245
All Alaskans200086.4%79.8%91.1%219259
All Alaskans200282.2%75.7%87.3%343436
All Alaskans200476.7%71.2%81.5%358475
All Alaskans200678.6%72.9%83.3%328420
All Alaskans200873.5%67.7%78.6%407541
All Alaskans201071.2%64.5%77.2%333477
All Alaskans201274.5%70.7%78.0%7481,013
All Alaskans201468.4%64.4%72.2%7741,133
All Alaskans201667.6%62.4%72.3%527793
All Alaskans201873.0%67.4%78.0%474629
Alaska Native people1991**31
Alaska Native people1992**34
Alaska Native people1993**37
Alaska Native people1994**38
Alaska Native people1995**37
Alaska Native people1996**46
Alaska Native people199793.1%84.1%97.2%4652
Alaska Native people1998**43
Alaska Native people199966.0%44.5%82.5%4253
Alaska Native people2000**48
Alaska Native people200286.8%62.3%96.3%7181
Alaska Native people200469.7%51.9%83.0%6588
Alaska Native people200684.2%74.5%90.6%7493
Alaska Native people200874.8%62.3%84.3%83109
Alaska Native people201070.9%53.5%83.8%4967
Alaska Native people201279.7%71.3%86.0%156197
Alaska Native people201473.3%63.3%81.4%107148
Alaska Native people201668.3%52.4%80.9%95133
Alaska Native people201883.4%73.7%90.1%7588
U.S.1990**
U.S.1991**
U.S.1992**
U.S.1993**
U.S.1994**
U.S.1995**
U.S.199670.6%
U.S.199773.7%
U.S.199875.3%
U.S.199975.9%
U.S.200079.1%
U.S.200279.4%
U.S.200478.0%
U.S.200679.9%
U.S.200879.2%
U.S.201077.8%
U.S.201277.0%
U.S.201478.1%
U.S.201677.6%
U.S.2018**

Data Notes

** Data not available due to fewer than 50 respondents in the denominator.

Data Sources

  • Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
  • U.S. Data: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)


Percentage of women (40-74) who reported having a screening mammogram within the past two years, by all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 1991-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsYearPercentage of Women (40-74)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 38
All Alaskans199160.2%52.3%67.5%206350
All Alaskans199269.5%62.4%75.8%224365
All Alaskans199368.2%60.3%75.1%246374
All Alaskans199471.8%64.6%78.0%279410
All Alaskans199572.8%66.1%78.6%281405
All Alaskans199676.1%69.5%81.7%322445
All Alaskans199774.9%68.3%80.5%332459
All Alaskans199875.0%69.7%79.7%396547
All Alaskans199971.9%63.9%78.7%419579
All Alaskans200074.7%69.3%79.4%466623
All Alaskans200272.2%67.2%76.7%621883
All Alaskans200467.0%62.4%71.4%574854
All Alaskans200673.4%69.0%77.4%527722
All Alaskans200866.3%61.5%70.7%652929
All Alaskans201070.3%64.9%75.1%528765
All Alaskans201271.9%68.6%75.0%9761,390
All Alaskans201461.9%58.2%65.5%9631,496
All Alaskans201662.8%57.9%67.5%621987
All Alaskans201862.1%56.7%67.3%560850
Alaska Native people199138.4%25.2%53.5%2663
Alaska Native people199260.5%43.9%74.9%3668
Alaska Native people199356.5%36.4%74.7%5083
Alaska Native people199470.5%54.6%82.6%5479
Alaska Native people199564.2%49.3%76.8%4366
Alaska Native people199682.1%67.0%91.2%7693
Alaska Native people199780.3%68.3%88.5%78100
Alaska Native people199881.4%69.4%89.4%6484
Alaska Native people199963.2%49.7%74.9%80115
Alaska Native people200077.8%63.7%87.5%80107
Alaska Native people200277.6%64.5%86.8%131175
Alaska Native people200466.6%54.4%77.0%110159
Alaska Native people200680.5%71.7%87.1%114144
Alaska Native people200863.8%53.3%73.2%127182
Alaska Native people201064.1%51.7%74.9%80119
Alaska Native people201277.7%70.6%83.5%198265
Alaska Native people201465.6%57.1%73.3%138209
Alaska Native people201666.3%53.1%77.4%125181
Alaska Native people201863.0%51.3%73.4%91127

Data Notes

Some women may be at increased risk for breast cancer and should start screening at age 40.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of women (50-74) who reported having a screening mammogram within the past two years, by marital status, all Alaskans, 1991-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Marital StatusYearPercentage of women (50-74)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 95
Married199179.1%67.4%87.4%5987
Married199277.2%63.0%87.0%6189
Married199369.9%50.7%84.0%6078
Married199484.3%72.8%91.5%86104
Married199581.1%68.3%89.6%89108
Married199683.4%70.4%91.5%96114
Married199778.3%64.4%87.8%101121
Married199877.6%64.4%86.9%96119
Married199979.8%67.0%88.5%100123
Married200086.0%75.8%92.4%113133
Married200283.0%73.2%89.7%198238
Married200481.2%74.7%86.3%195248
Married200682.6%75.6%88.0%187226
Married200876.1%69.1%82.0%232302
Married201075.5%66.9%82.4%185253
Married201275.7%70.6%80.2%425559
Married201470.3%65.2%74.9%478670
Married201671.1%64.5%76.9%324457
Married201874.1%67.8%79.6%288375
Widowed1991**36
Widowed1992**29
Widowed1993**29
Widowed1994**36
Widowed1995**33
Widowed1996**35
Widowed1997**38
Widowed1998**40
Widowed1999**42
Widowed2000**46
Widowed200282.0%68.6%90.5%5467
Widowed200472.6%53.2%86.1%4458
Widowed2006**49
Widowed200865.7%50.7%78.1%5474
Widowed201069.8%49.7%84.4%3759
Widowed201275.4%64.2%84.0%87118
Widowed201468.4%56.1%78.6%93132
Widowed201659.4%44.1%73.1%61107
Widowed201872.6%59.5%82.7%5172
Divorced/Separated1991**29
Divorced/Separated1992**32
Divorced/Separated1993**35
Divorced/Separated1994**35
Divorced/Separated1995**43
Divorced/Separated1996**38
Divorced/Separated1997**42
Divorced/Separated199879.3%58.6%91.3%4860
Divorced/Separated199985.8%68.4%94.4%6168
Divorced/Separated200082.4%66.5%91.7%5365
Divorced/Separated200283.6%72.8%90.7%7099
Divorced/Separated200466.1%52.1%77.7%83120
Divorced/Separated200673.5%60.3%83.5%90114
Divorced/Separated200868.2%51.9%81.0%90125
Divorced/Separated201052.1%36.8%67.1%74118
Divorced/Separated201270.7%61.8%78.2%161228
Divorced/Separated201462.8%53.7%71.0%143233
Divorced/Separated201659.8%47.2%71.3%85146
Divorced/Separated201869.2%53.8%81.3%91124
Never Married1991**6
Never Married1992**2
Never Married1993**3
Never Married1994**5
Never Married1995**5
Never Married1996**4
Never Married1997**5
Never Married1998**13
Never Married1999**8
Never Married2000**12
Never Married2002**18
Never Married2004**30
Never Married2006**23
Never Married2008**29
Never Married2010**33
Never Married201266.9%49.7%80.5%4874
Never Married201461.2%42.5%77.1%3963
Never Married201667.5%45.6%83.7%4058
Never Married2018**37
Living with a Partner1991**2
Living with a Partner1992**1
Living with a Partner1993**1
Living with a Partner1994**1
Living with a Partner1995**1
Living with a Partner1996**4
Living with a Partner1997**2
Living with a Partner1998**1
Living with a Partner1999**4
Living with a Partner2000**3
Living with a Partner2002**9
Living with a Partner2004**18
Living with a Partner2006**6
Living with a Partner2008**9
Living with a Partner2010**10
Living with a Partner2012**27
Living with a Partner2014**30
Living with a Partner2016**22
Living with a Partner2018**19

Data Notes

** Data not available due to fewer than 50 respondents in the denominator.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of women (50-74) who reported having a screening mammogram within the past two years, by age groups, all Alaskans, 1991-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Age Groups: 50-64, 65-74YearPercentage of women (50-74)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 38
50-64199172.4%59.7%82.2%81121
50-64199271.2%56.8%82.3%79117
50-64199361.2%42.9%76.8%6292
50-64199488.6%81.3%93.2%108129
50-64199576.3%64.1%85.3%117151
50-64199680.6%68.2%89.0%118143
50-64199780.3%67.6%88.9%124148
50-64199877.1%66.4%85.2%142181
50-64199978.1%67.8%85.8%157191
50-64200085.1%77.1%90.6%165199
50-64200284.7%77.6%89.8%265331
50-64200476.9%70.7%82.2%284379
50-64200678.3%71.7%83.7%256326
50-64200873.6%66.9%79.4%324430
50-64201073.5%65.9%79.9%253359
50-64201272.4%67.8%76.6%552762
50-64201466.5%61.6%71.1%537799
50-64201665.6%59.1%71.5%352531
50-64201871.0%64.1%77.1%289379
65-741991**40
65-741992**36
65-74199384.1%69.2%92.6%4254
65-74199474.1%52.6%88.1%3452
65-741995**39
65-74199682.4%66.2%91.8%3652
65-74199774.2%55.7%86.7%4362
65-74199887.7%65.6%96.4%4652
65-74199974.3%55.5%87.0%4154
65-74200091.5%79.1%96.8%5460
65-74200274.0%57.8%85.6%78105
65-74200475.9%62.6%85.5%7496
65-74200679.6%67.7%87.9%7294
65-74200873.2%60.6%82.9%83111
65-74201062.2%47.5%75.0%80118
65-74201281.6%75.0%86.8%196251
65-74201474.8%68.4%80.3%237334
65-74201673.1%65.0%79.8%175262
65-74201877.8%71.5%83.0%185250

Data Notes

** Data not available due to fewer than 50 respondents in the denominator. Respondents are asked, "What is your age?, which is coded in years. Responses of Refused are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of women (50-74) who reported having a screening mammogram within the past two years, by education, all Alaskans, 1991-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Edu Level: LT High School, High School, Some College, College GradYearPercentage of women (50-74)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 76
LT High School1991**43
LT High School1992**33
LT High School1993**36
LT High School1994**39
LT High School1995**36
LT High School1996**34
LT High School1997**34
LT High School1998**26
LT High School1999**34
LT High School2000**35
LT High School2002**43
LT High School2004**49
LT High School2006**34
LT High School2008**36
LT High School2010**25
LT High School201270.6%53.1%83.6%4156
LT High School2014**39
LT High School2016**32
LT High School2018**24
High School1991**48
High School1992**48
High School1993**44
High School199477.6%57.3%90.0%4050
High School199580.0%62.7%90.5%4561
High School199683.5%67.9%92.4%5166
High School199767.1%46.8%82.5%5261
High School199873.7%53.7%87.1%5468
High School199961.4%41.6%78.0%5067
High School200085.9%67.8%94.6%5968
High School200275.6%60.5%86.3%100130
High School200467.2%54.6%77.8%95132
High School200677.1%64.5%86.1%7699
High School200866.3%51.7%78.3%97140
High School201065.5%52.5%76.5%73117
High School201278.9%71.4%84.9%164217
High School201461.7%52.8%69.9%142242
High School201663.6%52.0%73.7%119192
High School201874.6%63.5%83.2%114145
Some College1991**34
Some College1992**40
Some College1993**36
Some College1994**49
Some College199567.1%45.5%83.3%3250
Some College199676.8%58.4%88.6%4660
Some College199782.4%65.4%92.1%4656
Some College199883.2%68.5%91.9%5569
Some College199984.8%70.6%92.9%6172
Some College200086.7%76.4%92.9%6680
Some College200283.9%73.2%90.8%104131
Some College200480.4%72.2%86.6%110150
Some College200677.5%66.7%85.6%103133
Some College200874.9%65.6%82.4%135175
Some College201073.9%64.1%81.9%111165
Some College201269.2%62.2%75.5%226329
Some College201469.1%62.3%75.1%251366
Some College201666.5%58.0%74.1%169271
Some College201872.4%64.6%79.0%140200
College Graduate1991**36
College Graduate1992**32
College Graduate1993**30
College Graduate1994**43
College Graduate1995**43
College Graduate1996**35
College Graduate199794.1%82.7%98.1%5056
College Graduate199883.1%63.3%93.3%5969
College Graduate199985.4%71.1%93.3%6172
College Graduate200086.4%71.8%94.1%6576
College Graduate200291.2%84.2%95.2%108131
College Graduate200483.8%75.3%89.8%119144
College Graduate200681.7%72.1%88.5%126153
College Graduate200878.3%69.0%85.3%150190
College Graduate201077.3%65.1%86.2%134169
College Graduate201279.0%73.4%83.7%316409
College Graduate201474.4%68.6%79.5%353482
College Graduate201674.3%66.1%81.1%215295
College Graduate201880.4%71.7%86.8%207259

Data Notes

** Data not available due to fewer than 50 respondents in the denominator. Education is based upon education completed by or after 25 years of age. Individuals less than 25 years of age are excluded. Education is assessed by responses to the question: "What is the highest grade or year of school you completed?" Responses are "Never attended school or only attended kindergarten", "Grades 1 through 8 (Elementary)", "Grades 9 through 11 (Some high school)", "Grade 12 (High School Graduate)", "College 1 year to 3 years (Some college or technical school)", "College 4 years or more (College graduate)", or "Refused". Refusals are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of women (50-74) who reported having a screening mammogram within the past two years, by employment, all Alaskans, 1991-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: EmploymentYearPercentage of women (50-74)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 76
Employed199171.7%55.8%83.6%5380
Employed199273.3%57.8%84.6%5177
Employed199368.0%48.1%83.0%4765
Employed199486.4%76.3%92.6%7290
Employed199571.9%55.9%83.7%75100
Employed199679.9%65.1%89.4%7394
Employed199776.3%58.7%87.9%7695
Employed199880.0%67.3%88.6%99124
Employed199985.5%76.9%91.3%120143
Employed200085.0%75.3%91.3%108133
Employed200285.4%77.2%91.0%189234
Employed200473.3%65.2%80.0%200270
Employed200678.9%71.4%84.8%193246
Employed200877.4%70.5%83.0%249324
Employed201072.6%64.4%79.6%199279
Employed201273.0%67.3%78.0%407554
Employed201466.7%60.8%72.1%392590
Employed201667.7%60.4%74.2%265396
Employed201870.0%62.3%76.7%217296
Unemployed1991**5
Unemployed1992**14
Unemployed1993**6
Unemployed1994**10
Unemployed1995**9
Unemployed1996**10
Unemployed1997**12
Unemployed1998**15
Unemployed1999**12
Unemployed2000**9
Unemployed2002**21
Unemployed2004**22
Unemployed2006**18
Unemployed2008**17
Unemployed2010**23
Unemployed201277.1%61.5%87.6%4259
Unemployed2014**36
Unemployed2016**34
Unemployed2018**20
Not In Work Force199168.8%53.7%80.8%4776
Not In Work Force199272.6%53.3%86.0%3862
Not In Work Force199368.5%43.3%86.1%4966
Not In Work Force199480.3%64.1%90.3%5574
Not In Work Force199584.8%73.3%91.8%5269
Not In Work Force199682.5%66.5%91.9%6379
Not In Work Force199782.5%68.4%91.1%7390
Not In Work Force199879.0%61.8%89.7%6983
Not In Work Force199973.6%55.9%86.0%5975
Not In Work Force200087.8%74.7%94.6%8999
Not In Work Force200276.4%62.9%86.1%116152
Not In Work Force200482.4%73.7%88.6%120152
Not In Work Force200680.9%71.1%87.9%104132
Not In Work Force200870.0%57.8%79.9%120162
Not In Work Force201073.0%60.0%82.9%101139
Not In Work Force201276.3%69.6%82.0%229303
Not In Work Force201472.5%66.2%78.0%304416
Not In Work Force201674.5%67.1%80.7%201290
Not In Work Force201881.4%74.8%86.6%212268
Unable to Work1991**0
Unable to Work1992**0
Unable to Work1993**9
Unable to Work1994**7
Unable to Work1995**11
Unable to Work1996**12
Unable to Work1997**11
Unable to Work1998**11
Unable to Work1999**15
Unable to Work2000**17
Unable to Work2002**29
Unable to Work2004**30
Unable to Work2006**21
Unable to Work2008**37
Unable to Work2010**33
Unable to Work201274.7%63.4%83.5%6996
Unable to Work201462.8%46.7%76.5%5083
Unable to Work201640.6%24.5%58.9%3767
Unable to Work2018**45

Data Notes

** Data not available due to fewer than 50 respondents in the denominator. Employment status is assessed by the question: "Are you currently ...?" with responses of "Employed for wages", "Self-employed", "Out of work for 1 year or more", "Out of work for less than 1 year", "A Homemaker", "A Student", "Retired", "Unable to work" or "Refused". Refusals are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of women (50-74) who reported having a screening mammogram within the past two years, by income, all Alaskans, 1991-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Income: LT $15k, $15k-$25k, $25k-$50k, $50-$75k, $75k+YearPercentage of women (50-74)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 75
<$15,0001995**27
<$15,0001996**24
<$15,0001997**31
<$15,0001998**33
<$15,0001999**26
<$15,0002000**32
<$15,0002002**44
<$15,000200458.0%40.8%73.4%3458
<$15,0002006**44
<$15,0002008**44
<$15,0002010**38
<$15,000201262.1%49.1%73.6%61107
<$15,000201450.5%36.8%64.2%5193
<$15,000201636.9%21.4%55.7%3062
<$15,0002018**43
$15,000 - $24,9991995**28
$15,000 - $24,9991996**33
$15,000 - $24,9991997**39
$15,000 - $24,9991998**34
$15,000 - $24,9991999**40
$15,000 - $24,9992000**43
$15,000 - $24,999200266.6%41.3%85.0%4563
$15,000 - $24,999200464.8%46.2%79.7%4569
$15,000 - $24,9992006**48
$15,000 - $24,999200862.7%42.8%79.0%3754
$15,000 - $24,9992010**49
$15,000 - $24,999201272.7%60.2%82.5%69100
$15,000 - $24,999201450.1%34.6%65.5%59105
$15,000 - $24,999201673.7%58.5%84.8%6196
$15,000 - $24,999201865.8%46.2%81.2%4968
$25,000 - $49,999199574.5%55.9%87.1%4259
$25,000 - $49,999199680.8%62.5%91.4%4660
$25,000 - $49,999199777.4%58.4%89.3%4960
$25,000 - $49,999199883.2%65.2%92.9%5873
$25,000 - $49,999199987.2%75.0%93.9%5768
$25,000 - $49,999200086.7%76.3%92.9%6982
$25,000 - $49,999200281.0%70.0%88.4%100129
$25,000 - $49,999200477.3%65.4%85.9%86111
$25,000 - $49,999200679.9%66.0%89.0%6784
$25,000 - $49,999200869.7%58.1%79.2%91127
$25,000 - $49,999201067.4%52.7%79.4%6393
$25,000 - $49,999201270.1%60.4%78.3%134191
$25,000 - $49,999201457.0%48.3%65.3%130219
$25,000 - $49,999201659.9%47.7%71.0%97157
$25,000 - $49,999201863.9%51.4%74.8%6398
$50,000 - $74,9991995**25
$50,000 - $74,9991996**29
$50,000 - $74,9991997**27
$50,000 - $74,9991998**37
$50,000 - $74,9991999**36
$50,000 - $74,9992000**38
$50,000 - $74,999200283.2%64.7%93.0%5366
$50,000 - $74,999200486.5%72.7%93.9%7385
$50,000 - $74,999200687.9%74.8%94.7%7384
$50,000 - $74,999200870.2%56.3%81.2%75102
$50,000 - $74,999201058.7%39.9%75.3%4775
$50,000 - $74,999201271.6%59.8%81.0%131173
$50,000 - $74,999201472.7%63.0%80.6%127181
$50,000 - $74,999201673.5%60.8%83.2%79106
$50,000 - $74,999201875.5%63.9%84.3%80108
$75,000+1995**26
$75,000+1996**25
$75,000+1997**27
$75,000+1998**33
$75,000+1999**43
$75,000+2000**45
$75,000+200295.2%89.9%97.8%7382
$75,000+200483.8%71.2%91.5%7286
$75,000+200681.7%70.6%89.2%92111
$75,000+200885.0%74.8%91.5%116137
$75,000+201079.7%69.4%87.1%116154
$75,000+201282.6%76.2%87.5%254307
$75,000+201477.2%71.1%82.4%318419
$75,000+201671.3%63.0%78.4%214298
$75,000+201879.0%70.7%85.4%168206

Data Notes

** Data not available due to fewer than 50 respondents in the denominator. Income is measure by the question: "Is your annual household income from all sources ---" with categories of "Less than $10,000", "Less than $15,000", "less than $20,000", "less than $25,000", "less than $35,000", "less than $50,000", "less than $75,000", "$75,000 or more", and "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused". Responses of "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused" are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of women (50-74) who reported having a screening mammogram within the past two years, by medicaid eligibility, all Alaskans, 2010-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Medicaid Eligibility StatusYearPercentage of women (50-74)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 10
Medicaid Eligible201067.9%48.2%82.8%5179
Medicaid Eligible201276.3%67.6%83.2%124181
Medicaid Eligible201449.2%38.8%59.7%98187
Medicaid Eligible201658.6%43.9%71.9%86150
Medicaid Eligible201859.1%43.9%72.7%77111
Medicaid Ineligible201074.9%66.6%81.7%229307
Medicaid Ineligible201279.4%74.6%83.4%525650
Medicaid Ineligible201471.9%67.4%76.0%587830
Medicaid Ineligible201669.3%63.4%74.7%395569
Medicaid Ineligible201876.4%70.9%81.1%314412

Data Notes

** Data not available due to fewer than 50 respondents in the denominator.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of women (50-74) who reported having a screening mammogram within the past two years, by current smoking, all Alaskans, 2014-2018 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Percentage of women (50-74)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 2
Not current smoker71.8%68.9%74.6%1,5292,149
Current smoker57.3%50.1%64.1%237391

Data Notes

Current smoking is assessed using two questions: "Have you smoked at least 100 cigarettes in your entire life?" and, if "Yes", "Do you now smoke cigarettes every day, some days, or not at all?" Current smokers are defined as those who have smoked at least 100 cigarettes and who now smoke every day or some days. Non-current smokers are those who have either never smoke 100 cigarettes or whom now smoke cigarettes not at all. Responses of "Don't know / Not sure" or "Refused" to either question are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of women (50-74) who reported having a screening mammogram within the past two years, by sexual orientation, all Alaskans, 2014-2018 (3-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 2
Heterosexual70.4%67.3%73.2%1,6112,317
Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual51.7%34.1%68.9%4269

Data Notes

Sexual orientation is assess by the question: "Now I'm going to ask you a question about sexual orientation. Do you think of yourself as A. Gay or lesbian, B. Straight, that is, not lesbian or gay, C. Bisexual, or D. something else?" Responses of "Straight, that is not lesbian or gay" are contrasted with the combined responses to"Gay or lesbian" and "Bisexual". Responses of "Something else", "Don't Know / Not sure", or "Refused" are excluded.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of women (50-74) who reported having a screening mammogram within the past two years, by Alaska Public Health Regions, all Alaskans, 2010-2018 (5-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of women (50-74)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 14
All AlaskansAnchorage74.8%70.2%78.9%575754
All AlaskansGulf Coast64.1%58.9%69.0%429651
All AlaskansInterior75.7%71.5%79.4%648850
All AlaskansMat-Su68.2%62.5%73.4%380561
All AlaskansNorthern74.5%65.6%81.7%114154
All AlaskansSoutheast69.7%65.4%73.6%477673
All AlaskansSouthwest76.2%67.6%83.0%233319
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage76.8%62.0%87.0%4964
Alaska Native peopleGulf Coast77.4%59.1%89.0%5470
Alaska Native peopleInterior79.1%64.0%89.0%84105
Alaska Native peopleMat-Su**45
Alaska Native peopleNorthern80.9%70.4%88.3%7491
Alaska Native peopleSoutheast74.7%63.9%83.2%72100
Alaska Native peopleSouthwest79.9%69.9%87.2%113145

Data Notes

The BRFSS question on screening mammograms is currently asked in even years. In order to produce regional depictions of screening rates for women 50-74 years of age, it was necessary to combine years 2006 through 2014 in order to obtain an average of the 5 survey periods. Geographic descriptions of the public health regions can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_phr.aspx]. ** Data not available due to fewer than 50 respondents in the denominator.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of women (50-74) who reported having a screening mammogram within the past two years, by behavioral health system assessment reporting regions, all Alaskans, 2010-2018 (5-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of women (50-74)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 22
All AlaskansAnchorage Muncipality74.8%70.2%78.9%575754
All AlaskansFairbanks North Star Borough75.5%70.6%79.7%476622
All AlaskansCity and Borough of Juneau71.3%64.5%77.2%193266
All AlaskansKenai Peninsula Borough64.8%58.8%70.4%291436
All AlaskansMatanuska-Susitna Borough68.2%62.5%73.4%380561
All AlaskansNorthwest Region74.5%65.6%81.7%114154
All AlaskansOther Interior Region68.9%62.0%75.2%249351
All AlaskansOther SE - Northern76.5%68.9%82.7%160216
All AlaskansOther SE - Southern60.4%51.7%68.4%124191
All AlaskansY-K Delta Region80.7%70.2%88.1%98131
All AlaskansSouthwest Region69.4%58.5%78.5%196280
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage Muncipality76.8%62.0%87.0%4964
Alaska Native peopleFairbanks North Star Borough**42
Alaska Native peopleCity and Borough of Juneau**25
Alaska Native peopleKenai Peninsula Borough**39
Alaska Native peopleMatanuska-Susitna Borough**45
Alaska Native peopleNorthwest Region80.9%70.4%88.3%7491
Alaska Native peopleOther Interior Region81.0%68.5%89.3%6076
Alaska Native peopleOther SE - Northern**31
Alaska Native peopleOther SE - Southern**44
Alaska Native peopleY-K Delta Region81.7%67.7%90.5%5775
Alaska Native peopleSouthwest Region77.6%58.5%89.4%7088

Data Notes

The BRFSS question on screening mammograms is currently asked in even years. In order to produce regional depictions of screening rates for women 50-74 years of age, it was necessary to combine years 2006 through 2014 in order to obtain an average of the 5 survey periods. Geographic descriptions of the behavioral health systems assessment reporting regions can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_bhs.aspx]. ** Data not available due to fewer than 50 respondents in the denominator.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of women (50-74) who reported having a screening mammogram within the past two years, by tribal health organization regions, all Alaskans, 2010-2018 (5-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of women (50-74)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 24
All AlaskansAleutians and Pribilofs71.5%47.0%87.7%6078
All AlaskansAnchorage/Mat-Su73.2%69.5%76.5%9551,315
All AlaskansArctic Slope**29
All AlaskansBristol Bay72.4%60.0%82.1%76111
All AlaskansCopper R/Prince William Snd.57.1%46.1%67.4%80128
All AlaskansInterior75.7%71.5%79.5%643842
All AlaskansKenai Peninsula64.8%58.8%70.4%291436
All AlaskansKodiak Area67.5%50.4%80.9%6192
All AlaskansNorthwest Arctic65.7%50.6%78.2%3555
All AlaskansNorton Sound89.0%79.6%94.3%5970
All AlaskansSoutheast69.7%65.4%73.6%477673
All AlaskansYukon-Kuskokwim80.2%69.8%87.7%99133
Alaska Native peopleAleutians and Pribilofs**28
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage/Mat-Su74.2%60.8%84.2%85109
Alaska Native peopleArctic Slope**13
Alaska Native peopleBristol Bay**43
Alaska Native peopleCopper R/Prince William Snd.**15
Alaska Native peopleInterior79.0%63.5%89.1%80100
Alaska Native peopleKenai Peninsula**39
Alaska Native peopleKodiak Area**18
Alaska Native peopleNorthwest Arctic**38
Alaska Native peopleNorton Sound**40
Alaska Native peopleSoutheast74.7%63.9%83.2%72100
Alaska Native peopleYukon-Kuskokwim81.1%67.3%89.9%5877

Data Notes

The BRFSS question on screening mammograms is currently asked in even years. In order to produce regional depictions of screening rates for women 50-74 years of age, it was necessary to combine years 2006 through 2014 in order to obtain an average of the 5 survey periods. Geographic descriptions of the tribal health organization regions can be found at: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/InfoCenter/Pages/ia/brfss/geo_thr.aspx]. ** Data not available due to fewer than 50 respondents in the denominator.

Data Source

Alaska Data: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/brfss/default.aspx Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, DPH, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of women (40-74) who reported having a screening mammogram within the past two years, by tribal health organization regions, all Alaskans, 2010-2018 (5-year average)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsPercentage of Women (40-74)Lower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 24
All AlaskansAleutians and Pribilofs68.6%51.1%82.1%77108
All AlaskansAnchorage/Mat-Su67.7%64.3%71.0%1,2261,802
All AlaskansArctic Slope**49
All AlaskansBristol Bay64.1%53.7%73.4%90148
All AlaskansCopper R/Prince William Snd.48.2%38.7%57.8%95175
All AlaskansInterior69.4%65.5%73.0%7991,120
All AlaskansKenai Peninsula55.8%50.7%60.8%362600
All AlaskansKodiak Area58.8%45.0%71.3%73121
All AlaskansNorthwest Arctic60.8%48.0%72.2%4879
All AlaskansNorton Sound71.9%58.2%82.4%77104
All AlaskansSoutheast62.7%58.7%66.6%594908
All AlaskansYukon-Kuskokwim64.4%53.6%73.9%123200
Alaska Native peopleAleutians and Pribilofs**33
Alaska Native peopleAnchorage/Mat-Su68.6%57.9%77.5%118160
Alaska Native peopleArctic Slope**27
Alaska Native peopleBristol Bay64.0%50.2%75.7%4061
Alaska Native peopleCopper R/Prince William Snd.**19
Alaska Native peopleInterior72.7%61.0%82.0%107142
Alaska Native peopleKenai Peninsula58.7%41.9%73.7%3758
Alaska Native peopleKodiak Area**23
Alaska Native peopleNorthwest Arctic64.4%49.5%76.9%3959
Alaska Native peopleNorton Sound72.8%56.6%84.6%4963
Alaska Native peopleSoutheast68.0%57.2%77.2%88130
Alaska Native peopleYukon-Kuskokwim62.9%49.5%74.6%73121

Data Notes

** Data not available due to fewer than 50 respondents in the denominator. Some women may be at increased risk for breast cancer and should start screening at age 40.

References and Community Resources

'''References:''' 1. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Final recommendation statement: breast cancer: screening. [http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/breast-cancer-screening1]. Updated January 2016. Accessed April 12, 2016. 2. U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool, based on November 2018 submission data (1999-2016): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute; www.cdc.gov/cancer/dataviz, June 2019. Accessed September 3, 2019. 3. Myers ER, Moorman P, Gierisch JM, Havrilesky LJ, et al. Benefits and harms of breast cancer screening. JAMA 2015;314(15):1615-34. 4. Roubidoux MA. Breast cancer and screening in American Indian and Alaska Native women. J Cancer Educ 2012;27(1 Suppl):S66-72. 5. The Community Guide: Cancer.[https://www.thecommunityguide.org/topic/cancer]. Accessed September 23, 2019. Resources: [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/wcfh/Pages/ladiesfirst/default.aspx Ladies First] [http://www.komen.org Susan G. Komen Foundation] [http://www.cancer.gov Cancer Information Service] [http://www.cancer.org American Cancer Society] [http://www.nci.nih.gov National Cancer Institute] [http://www.cdc.gov Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] [http://www.asco.org American Society of Clinical Oncology]

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Alaska health promotion resources may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

AK-IBIS Web Citation

Use and reproduction of the information published on this website are encouraged and may be done without permission. The following citation should accompany information from this website whenever it is used, reproduced, or published:

AK-IBIS Indicator Citation:
"[Indicator name]. Retrieved on [insert date] from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Example:
Diabetes Prevalence. Retrieved on March 25, 2016, from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (AK-IBIS) website: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/.

Page Content Updated On 09/26/2019, Published on 09/26/2019
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Mon, 09 December 2019 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Mon, 30 Sep 2019 08:31:00 AKDT
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics AK-IBIS web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Mon, 09 December 2019 9:44:40 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov/ ".

Content updated: Mon, 30 Sep 2019 08:31:00 AKDT