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State of Alaska

Complete Health Indicator Report of Support Systems - Adolescents (Grades 9-12) - 3 or more adults (besides their parent(s)) (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 10)

Definition

Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded "3", "4", or "5 or more adults" on the [http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)] to the question: "Besides your parents, how many adults would you feel comfortable seeking help from if you had an important question affecting your life?"

Numerator

Weighted number of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded on the YRBS with "3", "4", or "5 or more adults" to the question: "Besides your parents, how many adults would you feel comfortable seeking help from if you had an important question affecting your life?"

Denominator

Weighted number of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded on the YRBS with complete and valid responses to the question.

Data Interpretation Issues

Alaska has conducted a statewide Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 1995 and biennially from 2003. Weighted data were not obtained in 2005 and therefore no statewide estimates are available for that year. A YRBS survey conducted in 1999 did not include the Anchorage School District and therefore was not considered a valid statewide estimate. No YRBS survey was conducted in Alaska in 1997 and 2001. Traditional high schools are sometimes called comprehensive high schools. They are public high schools that are distinct from alternative high schools, which serve students at risk of not graduating, charter schools, correspondence schools, and students enrolled in high school in correctional facilities. Responses are weighted to reflect youth attending public traditional high schools in Alaska. The question "Besides your parents, how many adults would you feel comfortable seeking help from if you had an important question affecting your life?" has been asked on the YRBS for Alaska as a state-added option since 2003.

Why Is This Important?

Family and social support, including quality relationships with family, friends, colleagues, and the community, are associated with positive health status and outcomes. Family and social support can help provide youth with the support, resources, and opportunities needed to succeed as well as build resiliency to life stressors. There is growing evidence that for youth, having adults in their lives to whom they are bonded and with whom they have good communication is a protective factor. Protective factors can reduce the negative effects of life stressors and can increase an individual's ability to avoid risk behaviors. Enhancing protective factors among youth can help children and adolescents avoid behaviors that place them at risk for adverse health and educational outcomes.^1^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Building Effective Youth-Adults Partnerships. Transitions: The Rights. Respect. Responsibility. Campaign Volume 14, No. 1, October 2001. [http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/publications/publications-a-z/672-building-effective-youth-adult-partnerships/ Building Effective Youth-Adults Partnerships] }}

Healthy People Objective: Increase the proportion of adolescents who have an adult in their lives with whom they can talk about serious problems

U.S. Target: 83.3%

Other Objectives

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Leading Health Indicator 10: Increase the percentage of adolescents (high school students in grades 9-12) with three or more adults (besides their parents) from whom they feel comfortable seeking help to 47% by 2020.

How Are We Doing?

In 2015, the percentage of Alaska traditional high school students having a support system of 3 or more adults (beside their parents) was 46.0% for the statewide average and 40.8% for Alaska Native students, both below the Healthy Alaskans 2020 goal of 47.0%. White students show consistently higher rates of having adult support than either Alaska Native students or students of other races, but the differences are not statistically significant. Students stating that they earn mostly As and Bs showed a rate of 48.7% in 2015 compared to 40.2% for those earning lower grades. Less than one-third of adolescents in the Y-K Delta region feel comfortable seeking help from 3 or more adults (besides their parent(s)). Prevalence rates from the YRBS are initially presented for having an adult support system by all Alaskan and Alaska Native students. Subsequent analyses display the presence of adult support systems by demographic subpopulations (i.e., sex, age, race/ethnicity, ethnicity, grade level, and academic achievement) and regions.

Evidence-based Practices

As part of the Healthy Alaskans 2020 health improvement process, groups of Alaska subject matter experts met over a period of months in a rigorous review process to identify and prioritize strategies to address the 25 health priorities. Public health partners around the state are aligning work around these approaches adapted to Alaska's unique needs. Below are the strategies identified for enhancing adolescent support systems. '''Strategy 1:''' [[br]]Create positive school climates that promote connectedness and healthy youth-adult relationships. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]School climate is the quality and character of the experiences of students, parents, educators, and school personnel. School climate reflects the values and community norms of the school community. A positive school climate promotes childhood and youth development and fosters connectedness. School connectedness is "the belief by students that adults and peers in the school care about their learning as well as about them as individuals" (CDC, 2009). Relationships are essential to adolescent health. Connections with parents, peers, and other adults/mentors support and influence youth development. '''Sources:''' [[br]]Thapa A, Cohen J, Guffey S, Higgins-D'Alessandro A. A Review of School Climate Research. Review of Educational Research. 2013; 83(3): 357-385. Blum, R. School Connectedness: Improving the Lives of Students. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2005. '''Strategy 2:''' [[br]]Provide services and opportunities to support all young people in developing a sense of competence, usefulness, belonging, and empowerment. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]Research shows that healthy youth development strategies that provide all youth with the supports needed to become successful and competent adults are promising approaches for preventing or reducing a wide range of adolescent health-risk behaviors. Positive Youth Development (PYD) programs promote mental and emotional wellbeing by providing the supports and opportunities youth need to successfully transition to adulthood. PYD programs build on young persons' strengths and talents to help them gain the knowledge and skills they need to become healthy and productive adults. PYD programs are most effective when implemented by entire communities with meaningful youth participation. '''Sources:''' [[br]]University of Washington - Positive Youth Development in the United States: [http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/PositiveYouthDev99/] Bernat DH, Resnick MD. Healthy Youth Development: Science and Strategies. J Public Health Management Practice. 2006; November(Suppl): S10-S16. Institute of Medicine National Research Council. Report Brief: Community Programs to Promote Youth Development. 2004. Retrieved from [http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2004/Community-Programs-to-Promote-Youth-Development/FINALCommunityPrograms8Pager.pdf] A listing of strategies, actions, and key partners on this measure can be found at: [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/Actions-Partners_10_SocialSupport.pdf].


Related Indicators

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) with 3 or more adults (besides their parent(s)) who they feel comfortable seeking help from, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2003-2019

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 18
All Alaskans200346.9%43.4%50.4%6371,365
All Alaskans2005**
All Alaskans200745.9%42.7%49.1%5981,288
All Alaskans200944.6%40.9%48.3%5991,352
All Alaskans201143.8%40.1%47.6%5621,299
All Alaskans201342.8%39.4%46.3%5201,211
All Alaskans201546.0%42.9%49.2%6411,379
Alaska Natives200339.4%32.0%47.3%101256
Alaska Natives2005**
Alaska Natives200739.5%32.8%46.5%101249
Alaska Natives200934.1%25.7%43.7%106299
Alaska Natives201136.9%31.3%42.8%112297
Alaska Natives201338.6%29.9%48.2%108275
Alaska Natives201540.8%36.0%45.8%144349
Healthy Alaskans Goal201347.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201547.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201747.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201947.0%

Data Notes

** Data Not Available

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) with 3 or more adults (besides their parent(s)) who they feel comfortable seeking help from, by sex, all Alaskans, 2003-2019

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Males vs. FemalesYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 18
Males200346.9%42.4%51.5%322693
Males2005**
Males200749.4%44.5%54.3%321638
Males200945.4%40.5%50.4%281630
Males201143.1%38.1%48.1%268630
Males201344.3%38.7%50.0%255583
Males201545.7%41.4%50.0%316682
Females200347.3%42.6%52.0%314662
Females2005**
Females200742.4%38.1%46.8%275643
Females200943.9%39.5%48.4%316713
Females201144.6%40.5%48.8%292665
Females201341.5%37.6%45.5%263620
Females201546.1%41.5%50.8%320690
Healthy Alaskans Goal201347.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201547.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201747.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201947.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) with 3 or more adults (besides their parent(s)) who they feel comfortable seeking help from, by age, all Alaskans, 2003-2019

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Adolescent Age GroupsYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 39
14 or Younger200333.8%25.2%43.6%46135
14 or Younger2005**
14 or Younger200744.9%37.3%52.7%62142
14 or Younger200947.1%38.4%56.0%63141
14 or Younger201146.0%37.4%54.8%73161
14 or Younger201344.8%34.4%55.7%60137
14 or Younger201546.0%36.5%55.7%64143
15200348.4%43.5%53.4%193396
152005**
15200746.0%38.4%53.7%151344
15200944.3%37.5%51.2%162366
15201138.4%32.4%44.9%147380
15201339.1%33.6%44.9%130334
15201546.0%40.5%51.6%163354
16200344.4%38.7%50.2%143320
162005**
16200744.1%36.7%51.9%135292
16200944.0%37.9%50.3%153352
16201141.4%35.5%47.5%143346
16201342.5%36.0%49.2%124290
16201545.9%41.1%50.8%179384
17200347.6%41.2%54.1%142300
172005**
17200749.0%44.5%53.5%153311
17200943.6%37.3%50.1%131301
17201148.8%41.8%55.8%126265
17201347.2%40.2%54.3%130275
17201545.8%40.1%51.6%150318
18 or Older200354.2%47.4%60.9%113212
18 or Older2005**
18 or Older200745.0%37.6%52.6%95195
18 or Older200946.2%37.9%54.7%90189
18 or Older201148.2%40.6%56.0%73147
18 or Older201341.3%32.5%50.7%75174
18 or Older201546.9%38.7%55.2%83176
Healthy Alaskans Goal201347.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201547.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201747.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201947.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) with 3 or more adults (besides their parent(s)) who they feel comfortable seeking help from, by race, all Alaskans, 2003-2019

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Race: White, AK Native, OtherYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 25
White200350.5%46.1%54.8%422847
White2005**
White200749.7%45.3%54.1%369742
White200950.8%46.5%55.2%305603
White201149.3%44.8%53.8%315651
White201347.8%43.9%51.6%284592
White201550.2%45.4%55.0%328655
Alaska Native200339.4%32.0%47.3%101256
Alaska Native2005**
Alaska Native200739.5%32.8%46.5%101249
Alaska Native200934.1%25.7%43.7%106299
Alaska Native201136.9%31.3%42.8%112297
Alaska Native201338.6%29.9%48.2%108275
Alaska Native201540.8%36.0%45.8%144349
Other races200341.9%35.0%49.1%72173
Other races2005**
Other races200742.5%36.3%49.0%115269
Other races200941.7%36.4%47.1%139341
Other races201137.7%31.9%43.9%117313
Other races201334.0%28.8%39.6%108309
Other races201544.4%38.4%50.6%146321
Healthy Alaskans Goal201347.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201547.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201747.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201947.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) with 3 or more adults (besides their parent(s)) who they feel comfortable seeking help from, by Hispanic, all Alaskans, 2003-2019

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Ethnicity - Hispanic/LatinoYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 18
Hispanic/Latino2003**43
Hispanic/Latino2005**
Hispanic/Latino200734.4%26.2%43.7%37103
Hispanic/Latino200944.7%36.4%53.2%57135
Hispanic/Latino201131.7%24.1%40.5%43135
Hispanic/Latino201340.7%33.1%48.7%50125
Hispanic/Latino201546.8%36.9%56.9%61132
Not Hispanic/Latino200346.9%43.3%50.5%5751,233
Not Hispanic/Latino2005**
Not Hispanic/Latino200746.3%43.1%49.6%5561,175
Not Hispanic/Latino200944.7%40.9%48.7%5371,198
Not Hispanic/Latino201144.7%40.7%48.7%5091,142
Not Hispanic/Latino201342.7%39.1%46.4%4581,064
Not Hispanic/Latino201545.9%42.6%49.3%5651,216
Healthy Alaskans Goal201347.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201547.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201747.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201947.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) with 3 or more adults (besides their parent(s)) who they feel comfortable seeking help from, by grade level, all Alaskans, 2003-2019

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Grade LevelYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 32
9th200344.9%40.0%49.9%210466
9th2005**
9th200740.3%35.4%45.5%166409
9th200947.8%41.9%53.7%172376
9th201139.9%33.6%46.6%161407
9th201341.6%35.3%48.3%139341
9th201545.3%38.9%52.0%147322
10th200343.2%36.3%50.3%125290
10th2005**
10th200745.8%38.1%53.7%117251
10th200940.7%34.2%47.7%141337
10th201139.5%33.5%45.8%137343
10th201345.6%40.5%50.8%143316
10th201546.4%40.0%52.9%194416
11th200345.4%39.8%51.0%155338
11th2005**
11th200747.8%42.6%53.2%158330
11th200943.2%36.6%50.1%153360
11th201147.3%40.3%54.5%146314
11th201336.9%31.1%43.0%107281
11th201545.0%39.5%50.7%162352
12th200356.4%49.6%62.9%138249
12th2005**
12th200750.3%44.8%55.9%148281
12th200946.4%39.8%53.2%117245
12th201149.2%41.7%56.7%115228
12th201348.5%41.9%55.2%127259
12th201548.0%41.6%54.5%134276
Healthy Alaskans Goal201347.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201547.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201747.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201947.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) with 3 or more adults (besides their parent(s)) who they feel comfortable seeking help from, by academic performance, all Alaskans, 2003-2019

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Academic PerformanceYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 19
Mostly As and Bs200349.8%46.0%53.6%464935
Mostly As and Bs2005**
Mostly As and Bs200748.3%44.5%52.1%419855
Mostly As and Bs200949.0%44.5%53.6%436902
Mostly As and Bs201147.0%43.3%50.8%407866
Mostly As and Bs201346.4%42.7%50.1%400856
Mostly As and Bs201548.7%44.7%52.6%465945
Not mostly As and Bs200340.5%35.2%46.0%166412
Not mostly As and Bs2005**
Not mostly As and Bs200741.6%36.5%46.9%176427
Not mostly As and Bs200935.8%30.9%40.9%162445
Not mostly As and Bs201137.2%31.4%43.4%152426
Not mostly As and Bs201334.0%28.7%39.7%114342
Not mostly As and Bs201540.2%35.0%45.6%169419
Healthy Alaskans Goal201347.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201547.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201647.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201747.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201947.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) with 3 or more adults (besides their parent(s)) who they feel comfortable seeking help from, by Behavioral Health Systems Regions, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsBehavioral Health System Assessment RegionsPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 21
All AlaskansAnchorage Muncipality48.3%44.9%51.6%5691,203
All AlaskansFairbanks North Star Borough**389
All AlaskansCity and Borough of Juneau44.7%39.2%50.3%204457
All AlaskansKenai Peninsula Borough48.5%45.2%51.9%459962
All AlaskansMatanuska-Susitna Borough48.9%45.4%52.5%4961,054
All AlaskansNorthwest Region46.7%43.5%49.9%341718
All AlaskansOther Interior Region46.6%41.4%51.9%123269
All AlaskansOther Southeast Region49.2%46.2%52.2%440889
All AlaskansY-K Delta Region31.5%25.2%38.7%49152
All AlaskansSouthwest Region45.2%41.2%49.3%203457
Alaska NativesAnchorage Muncipality39.9%31.8%48.5%97217
Alaska NativesFairbanks North Star Borough**67
Alaska NativesCity and Borough of Juneau**70
Alaska NativesKenai Peninsula Borough47.5%40.0%55.2%65141
Alaska NativesMatanuska-Susitna Borough52.5%45.7%59.2%130235
Alaska NativesNorthwest Region45.7%42.4%49.1%278596
Alaska NativesOther Interior Region50.6%42.7%58.6%74153
Alaska NativesOther Southeast Region48.7%41.8%55.6%120238
Alaska NativesY-K Delta Region33.6%27.6%40.3%47140
Alaska NativesSouthwest Region50.0%42.7%57.3%86175
Healthy Alaskans GoalHealthy Alaskans Goal47.0%

Data Notes

** = Data statistically unreliable or suppressed. Data for the Fairbanks North Star Borough were collected by the Fairbanks North Star Borough School District, which has reserved access to the data. Requests for the information should be addressed to the FNSBSD Superintendent, Dr. Karen Gaborik at superintendent@k12northstar.org or (907) 452-2000 x11401. These data are a regional compilation of YRBS surveys conducted for local school districts. They represent a combination of samples representative of the student bodies of districts and others which are only representative of those completing the survey. The representative samples have been weighted to the sex and grade characteristics of their school district. The unrepresentative surveys have a weight of 1. The results of the local YRBS program may not meet the statistical rigor of the statewide estimates and should be viewed with caution. However, the local YRBS program does demonstrate the existence of risk factors.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) with 3 or more adults (besides their parent(s)) who they feel comfortable seeking help from, by Alaska Economic Regions, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsAlaska Public Health RegionsPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 13
All AlaskansAnchorage - Mat-Su48.4%45.8%51.1%1,0652,257
All AlaskansGulf Coast47.0%44.1%49.9%6141,341
All AlaskansInterior50.7%46.5%54.8%287586
All AlaskansNorthern46.7%43.5%49.9%341718
All AlaskansSoutheast47.1%44.0%50.1%6441,346
All AlaskansSouthwest41.0%36.8%45.3%126302
Alaska NativesAnchorage - Mat-Su43.9%37.8%50.1%227452
Alaska NativesGulf Coast46.1%39.7%52.6%93208
Alaska NativesInterior52.3%41.8%62.6%108212
Alaska NativesNorthern45.7%42.4%49.1%278596
Alaska NativesSoutheast49.7%44.2%55.2%158308
Alaska NativesSouthwest42.1%39.4%47.1%107256
Healthy Alaskans GoalHealthy Alaskans Goal47.0%

Data Notes

These data are a regional compilation of YRBS surveys conducted for local school districts. They represent a combination of samples representative of the student bodies of districts and others which are only representative of those completing the survey. The representative samples have been weighted to the sex and grade characteristics of their school district. The unrepresentative surveys have a weight of 1. The results of the local YRBS program may not meet the statistical rigor of the statewide estimates and should be viewed with caution. However, the local YRBS program does demonstrate the existence of risk factors although their exact magnitude may be in question.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) with 3 or more adults (besides their parent(s)) who they feel comfortable seeking help from, by Public Health Regions, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015

::chart - missing::


References and Community Resources

'''References:''' 1. Building Effective Youth-Adults Partnerships. Transitions: The Rights. Respect. Responsibility. Campaign Volume 14, No. 1, October 2001. [http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/publications/publications-a-z/672-building-effective-youth-adult-partnerships]

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Alaska health promotion resources may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

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AK-IBIS Indicator Citation:
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Page Content Updated On 04/22/2016, Published on 04/22/2016
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Content updated: Fri, 22 Apr 2016 15:44:54 AKDT
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Content updated: Fri, 22 Apr 2016 15:44:54 AKDT