Skip directly to searchSkip directly to the site navigationSkip directly to the page's main content
Skip directly to searchSkip directly to the site navigationSkip directly to this page's context menuSkip directly to the page's main content
State of Alaska

Complete Health Indicator Report of Mental Health - Adolescents (Grades 9-12) - Sad or Hopeless for 2 Weeks (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 8)

Definition

Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded "Yes" on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to the question: "During the past 12 months, did you ever feel so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks or more in a row that you stopped doing some usual activities?"

Numerator

Weighted number of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded "Yes" on the YRBS to the question: "During the past 12 months, did you ever feel so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks or more in a row that you stopped doing some usual activities?"

Denominator

Weighted number of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) with complete and valid responses to the question on the YRBS.

Data Interpretation Issues

Alaska has conducted a statewide Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 1995 and biennially from 2003. Weighted data were not obtained in 2005 and therefore no statewide estimates are available for that year. A YRBS survey conducted in 1999 did not include the Anchorage School District and therefore was not considered a valid statewide estimate. No YRBS survey was conducted in Alaska in 1997 and 2001. Traditional high schools are sometimes called comprehensive high schools. They are public high schools that are distinct from alternative high schools, which serve students at risk of not graduating, charter schools, correspondence schools, and students enrolled in high school in correctional facilities. Responses are weighted to reflect youth attending public traditional high schools in Alaska. The question on sad or hopeless for 2 weeks has been asked on the Alaska YRBS since 2003.

Why Is This Important?

Mental health is a state of successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, and the ability to adapt to change and to cope with adversity. Mental health is indispensable to personal well-being, family and interpersonal relationships, and contribution to community or society. Mental health was recognized in the U.S. Surgeon General's 1999 report as being fundamental to overall health.^1^ Poor mental health can occur across the lifespan, affecting persons of all racial and ethnic groups, both sexes, and all educational and socioeconomic groups. Evidence has shown that mental disorders are strongly related to the occurrence, successful treatment, and course of many chronic diseases including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and obesity, as well as many risk behaviors for chronic disease, including physical inactivity, smoking, excessive drinking, and insufficient sleep. In teens, sadness or depression can lead to poor grades at school, alcohol or drug use, unsafe sex, and other problems. National studies have found that mental health issues have been the most commonly identified precipitating circumstance in suicides.[[br]] [[br]] {{class .SmallerFont 1. United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General. [http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/retrieve/ResourceMetadata/NNBBHS Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General]. National Institute of Mental Health, 1999. }}

Other Objectives

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Indicator 8: Reduce the percentage of adolescents (high school students in grades 9‐12) who felt so sad or hopeless every day for 2 weeks or more in a row that they stopped doing some usual activities during the past 12 months to 23% by 2020.

How Are We Doing?

In 2015, the mental health of adolescents (grade 9-12) in Alaska was moving further away from the Healthy Alaskans goal of 23.0% feeling sad or hopeless for 2 weeks or more in a row. With few exceptions (Alaska Native adolescents and those 14 years of age and younger), there were higher prevalence rates of sadness and hopelessness in 2015 compared to 2013. The rate in 2015 for Alaskan adolescents overall was 33.6% and 30.9% for Alaska Native adolescents. No population subgroup was below the Healthy Alaskans goal of 23.0%. Prevalence rates from the YRBS are initially presented for sad or hopeless for 2 weeks by all Alaskans, Alaska Native people, and the mean of the national YRBS. Subsequent analyses display the prevalence of sad or hopeless by demographic subpopulations (i.e., sex, age, use before age 13, race/ethnicity, ethnicity, grade level, and academic achievement).

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

In 2013 (the most recent period for which national data are available), Alaskan adolescents were below the national rate of 29.9% for sadness and hopelessness with 27.2%, while Alaska Native adolescents were 31.3%. This mental health measure for all Alaskan adolescents has historically been below the national rate.

Evidence-based Practices

As part of the Healthy Alaskans 2020 health improvement process, groups of Alaska subject matter experts met over a period of months in a rigorous review process to identify and prioritize strategies to address the 25 health priorities. Public health partners around the state are aligning work around these approaches adapted to Alaska's unique needs. Below are the strategies identified for enhancing adolescent support systems. '''Strategy 1:''' [[br]]Identify adolescents experiencing or at risk of experiencing severe depression and immediately connect them to screening, treatment, and social support services. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]Screening for depression and suicide is a strategy identified by the President's New Freedom Commission of Mental Health (Goal 4). Screening programs implemented in schools can expand access to mental health services to health disparity populations, when screening is followed by school-based clinical and support services or a facilitated referral to community based services. The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) Program ensures that the health needs of children and youth are identified and treated early, before more complex and critical health conditions develop. EPSDT is a federally-mandated Medicaid benefit for all recipients aged 0-21. Comprehensive health screenings, diagnostic services and treatment services, including mental health screenings, are included in the EPSDT program. '''Sources:''' [[br]]Smith V, Rosen J. An Assessment of the Alaska YKHC EPSDT Pilot Project. 2002. Retrieved from [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dhcs/Documents/medicaid_medicare/news_medicaid/ykhc_report.pdf] Stoep AV et al. Universal Emotional Health Screening at the Middle School Transition. J Emot Behav Disor. 2005; 13(4): 213-223. Joe S, Bryant H. Evidence-Based Suicide Prevention Screening in Schools. Child Sch. 2007; 29(4): 219-227. '''Strategy 2:''' [[br]]Provide services and opportunities to support all young people in developing a sense of competence, usefulness, belonging, and empowerment. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]Research shows that healthy youth development strategies that provide all youth with the supports needed to become successful and competent adults are promising approaches for preventing or reducing a wide range of adolescent health-risk behaviors. Positive Youth Development (PYD) programs promote mental and emotional wellbeing by providing the supports and opportunities youth need to successfully transition to adulthood. PYD programs build on young persons' strengths and talents to help them gain the knowledge and skills they need to become healthy and productive adults. PYD programs are most effective when implemented by entire communities with meaningful youth participation. '''Sources:''' [[br]]University of Washington. [http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/PositiveYouthDev99/ Positive Youth Development in the United States] Bernat, DH, Resnick, MD. Healthy Youth Development: Science and Strategies. J Public Health Management Practice. 2006; (Suppl):S10-S16. A listing of strategies, actions, and key partners on this measure can be found at: [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/Actions-Partners_8_MentalHealth_Youth.pdf].

Available Services

If you or someone you know is in need of mental health services, treatment is available. Call 2-1-1 or visit [http://www.Alaska211.org]. Visit the online Mental Health Services Locator. [https://findtreatment.samhsa.gov/MHTreatmentLocator/faces/quickSearch.jspx] Call the Alaska Mental Health Board at 1-888-464-8920. Call the 24/7 Treatment Referral Line at 1-800-662-4357 (provided by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration). Call the Alaska Peer Support Consortium at 907-258-2772 for information about peer support services in your community. Alaska's Careline provides confidential 24/7 crisis support and intervention at [http://carelinealaska.com/] or Call anytime, toll-free: 1-877-266-4357 (HELP) or text 4help to 839863 3-11 p.m. Tuesday-Saturday


Related Indicators

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who felt so sad or hopeless for 2 weeks or more in a row that they stopped doing some usual activities during the past 12 months, all Alaskans, Alaska Natives, and U.S., 2003-2019

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 25
All Alaskans200325.2%22.6%28.1%3771,473
All Alaskans2005**
All Alaskans200726.9%24.3%29.7%3641,362
All Alaskans200925.2%22.4%28.2%3641,362
All Alaskans201125.9%23.2%28.9%3601,297
All Alaskans201327.2%24.4%30.2%3281,408
All Alaskans201533.6%30.1%37.4%4841,408
Alaska Natives200325.1%19.1%32.1%77291
Alaska Natives2005**
Alaska Natives200731.7%26.6%37.4%90257
Alaska Natives200925.6%19.9%32.2%84300
Alaska Natives201123.4%19.7%27.6%83294
Alaska Natives201331.3%26.5%36.4%92356
Alaska Natives201530.9%23.4%39.6%116240
U.S.200328.6%26.9%30.3%14,918
U.S.200528.5%27.2%29.7%13,781
U.S.200728.5%27.1%29.8%13,845
U.S.200926.1%24.8%27.5%16,232
U.S.201128.5%27.2%29.7%15,269
U.S.201329.9%28.3%31.6%13,495
U.S.2015**
Healthy Alaskans Goal201323.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201523.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201723.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201923.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available

Data Sources

  • Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, YRBS Program
  • Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who felt so sad or hopeless for 2 weeks or more in a row that they stopped doing some usual activities during the past 12 months, by sex, all Alaskans, 2003-2019

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Males vs. FemalesYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 18
Males200320.8%17.6%24.3%158757
Males2005**
Males200719.2%15.8%23.2%134653
Males200917.2%14.0%20.9%118637
Males201119.4%16.6%22.7%136631
Males201319.0%15.7%22.8%110577
Males201525.0%21.6%28.8%181706
Females200330.1%27.0%33.5%217707
Females2005**
Females200734.5%30.6%38.7%224649
Females200933.5%29.6%37.7%243718
Females201132.8%28.5%37.5%223662
Females201335.7%31.4%40.2%217614
Females201542.7%37.5%48.1%301698
Healthy Alaskans Goal201323.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201523.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201723.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201923.0%

Data Source

Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, YRBS Program


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who felt so sad or hopeless for 2 weeks or more in a row that they stopped doing some usual activities during the past 12 months, by age, all Alaskans, 2003-2019

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Adolescent Age GroupsYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 39
14 or Younger200324.9%17.9%33.6%35147
14 or Younger2005**
14 or Younger200731.1%21.4%42.8%44144
14 or Younger200922.8%17.0%29.9%37144
14 or Younger201123.5%17.2%31.4%42162
14 or Younger201328.8%21.5%37.5%40138
14 or Younger201525.9%18.2%35.5%37145
15200324.1%20.1%28.6%101429
152005**
15200725.6%20.6%31.4%97352
15200923.0%19.0%27.6%93368
15201126.6%21.8%31.9%114385
15201325.7%21.0%31.1%86328
15201533.0%26.8%39.8%126365
16200326.2%21.0%32.3%91344
162005**
16200726.7%21.3%33.0%81298
16200927.8%22.7%33.7%103353
16201124.8%20.4%29.9%87339
16201329.2%23.9%35.1%82286
16201537.9%32.5%43.5%147392
17200326.1%22.2%30.4%90321
172005**
17200727.7%22.9%33.0%90312
17200930.2%23.7%37.5%91301
17201127.8%21.8%34.8%77264
17201325.6%19.8%32.3%68265
17201534.2%28.7%40.1%112324
18 or Older200324.7%19.8%30.4%59229
18 or Older2005**
18 or Older200725.3%17.9%34.4%50200
18 or Older200918.8%12.2%27.7%38194
18 or Older201125.4%19.6%32.4%40147
18 or Older201328.1%22.5%34.3%52176
18 or Older201531.8%25.3%39.0%59177
Healthy Alaskans Goal201323.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201523.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201723.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201923.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available

Data Source

Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, YRBS Program


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who felt so sad or hopeless for 2 weeks or more in a row that they stopped doing some usual activities during the past 12 months, by race, all Alaskans, 2003-2019

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Race: White, AK Native, OtherYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 25
White200323.8%20.8%27.0%211897
White2005**
White200724.4%20.5%28.8%188752
White200924.0%20.3%28.1%157615
White201125.5%21.1%30.4%168653
White201324.3%20.4%28.5%141584
White201535.1%30.1%40.5%242672
Alaska Native200325.1%19.1%32.1%77291
Alaska Native2005**
Alaska Native200731.7%26.6%37.4%90257
Alaska Native200925.6%19.9%32.2%84300
Alaska Native201123.4%19.7%27.6%83294
Alaska Native201331.3%26.5%36.4%92278
Alaska Native201530.9%23.4%39.6%116356
Other races200331.0%23.3%39.9%60194
Other races2005**
Other races200728.5%23.2%34.6%80274
Other races200926.2%22.2%30.7%91340
Other races201131.0%26.6%35.8%100314
Other races201326.9%22.1%32.3%83304
Other races201532.3%27.9%37.1%104326
Healthy Alaskans Goal201323.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201523.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201723.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201923.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available

Data Source

Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, YRBS Program


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who felt so sad or hopeless for 2 weeks or more in a row that they stopped doing some usual activities during the past 12 months, by ethnicity, all Alaskans, 2003-2019

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Ethnicity - Hispanic/LatinoYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 18
Hispanic/Latino2003**47
Hispanic/Latino2005**
Hispanic/Latino200733.5%24.1%44.5%37107
Hispanic/Latino200925.9%18.8%34.4%37134
Hispanic/Latino201133.5%26.2%41.6%47140
Hispanic/Latino201331.9%24.2%40.8%39123
Hispanic/Latino201536.2%29.1%43.9%48135
Not Hispanic/Latino200324.8%22.1%27.8%3331,335
Not Hispanic/Latino2005**
Not Hispanic/Latino200726.7%24.0%29.6%3261,193
Not Hispanic/Latino200924.9%22.0%28.2%3201,210
Not Hispanic/Latino201125.3%22.5%28.4%3071,136
Not Hispanic/Latino201326.3%23.4%29.4%2801,056
Not Hispanic/Latino201533.4%29.7%37.3%4241,240
Healthy Alaskans Goal201323.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201523.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201723.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201923.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available

Data Source

Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, YRBS Program


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who felt so sad or hopeless for 2 weeks or more in a row that they stopped doing some usual activities during the past 12 months, by grade level, all Alaskans, 2003-2019

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Grade LevelYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 32
9th200323.8%20.1%27.8%117506
9th2005**
9th200726.9%22.6%31.7%121420
9th200921.6%17.5%26.2%94381
9th201126.8%22.0%32.2%121413
9th201328.2%23.6%33.4%97337
9th201529.6%22.4%37.8%103338
10th200325.2%20.2%30.9%79313
10th2005**
10th200727.8%23.4%32.7%72254
10th200926.6%21.5%32.3%95341
10th201125.0%20.6%29.9%90338
10th201330.5%25.5%36.1%95314
10th201535.6%31.0%40.4%152428
11th200327.6%22.9%33.0%104360
11th2005**
11th200726.4%21.0%32.6%90335
11th200931.1%25.7%37.1%111362
11th201126.7%21.0%33.3%84313
11th201323.5%18.6%29.3%62272
11th201536.5%30.4%43.1%130357
12th200324.3%19.4%30.0%68271
12th2005**
12th200727.3%21.4%34.2%79283
12th200919.4%13.9%26.4%51249
12th201125.1%19.0%32.3%64227
12th201325.8%20.5%31.9%70260
12th201533.2%28.5%38.3%95274
Healthy Alaskans Goal201323.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201523.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201723.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201923.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available

Data Source

Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, YRBS Program


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who felt so sad or hopeless for 2 weeks or more in a row that they stopped doing some usual activities during the past 12 months, by academic performance, all Alaskans, 2011-2020

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Academic PerformanceYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 18
Mostly As and Bs200322.4%19.8%25.3%2281,001
Mostly As and Bs2005**
Mostly As and Bs200722.5%19.5%25.7%204867
Mostly As and Bs200921.7%18.7%25.1%203909
Mostly As and Bs201123.0%19.8%26.5%207858
Mostly As and Bs201323.9%20.9%27.3%205845
Mostly As and Bs201530.1%26.7%33.7%301965
Not mostly As and Bs200331.2%25.6%37.5%144454
Not mostly As and Bs2005**
Not mostly As and Bs200735.2%30.2%40.6%158437
Not mostly As and Bs200932.0%27.7%36.6%159448
Not mostly As and Bs201131.6%27.4%36.2%149431
Not mostly As and Bs201335.0%29.8%40.7%120338
Not mostly As and Bs201540.9%34.5%47.5%178428
Healthy Alaskans Goal201323.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201523.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201723.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal201923.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available

Data Source

Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, YRBS Program

References and Community Resources

'''References:''' 1. United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General. Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. National Institute of Mental Health, 1999. [http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/retrieve/ResourceMetadata/NNBBHS]

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.
Page Content Updated On 01/31/2016, Published on 01/31/2016
The information provided above is from the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services' Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health (Ak-IBIS) web site (http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Mon, 08 February 2016 from Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Center for Health Data and Statistics, Alaska Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health web site: http://ibis.dhss.alaska.gov ".

Content updated: Sun, 31 Jan 2016 16:54:03 AKST
The information provided above is from the Department of Health's Center for Health Data IBIS-PH web site (http://ibis.health.state.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Mon, 08 February 2016 0:52:08 from Department of Health, Center for Health Data, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.state.gov ".

Content updated: Sun, 31 Jan 2016 16:54:03 AKST