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State of Alaska

Complete Health Indicator Report of Dating Violence - Adolescents (Grades 9-12) (HA2020 Leading Health Indicator: 13)

Definition

Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12) who responded "Yes" on the [http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)] to the question: "Among students who dated or went out with someone during the past 12 months, the percentage who had been physically hurt on purpose by someone they were dating or going out with one or more times during the past 12 months."

Numerator

Weighted number of adolescents (grades 9-12) on the YRBS with responses of "1" to "6 or more times" to the question: "During the past 12 months, how many times did someone you were dating or going out with physically hurt you on purpose? (Count such things as being hit, slammed into something, or injured with an object or weapon.)"

Denominator

Weighted number of adolescents (grades 9-12) on the YRBS who were dating or went out with someone during the past 12 months with complete and valid responses.

Data Interpretation Issues

Alaska has conducted a statewide Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 1995 and biennially from 2003. Weighted data were not obtained in 2005 and therefore no statewide estimates are available for that year. A YRBS survey conducted in 1999 did not include the Anchorage School District and therefore was not considered a valid statewide estimate. No YRBS survey was conducted in Alaska in 1997 and 2001. Traditional high schools are sometimes called comprehensive high schools. They are public high schools that are distinct from alternative high schools, which serve students at risk of not graduating, charter schools, correspondence schools, and students enrolled in high school in correctional facilities. Responses are weighted to reflect youth attending public traditional high schools in Alaska. The question on dating violence changed in 2013 to "During the past 12 months, how many times did someone you were dating hurt you on purpose? (Count such things as being hit, slammed into something, or injured with an object or weapon." from "During the past 12 months, did your boyfriend or girlfriend ever hit, slap, or physically hurt you on purpose?" Changes in wording from "boyfriend or girlfriend" to "someone you were dating or going out with"; the description of harm from "ever hit, slapped, or physically hurt" to "hit, slammed into something, or injured with an object or weapon"; changes in response categories from yes or no to number of times; and limitation to those dating or going out rather all students affect the prevalence rates. Responses to the two questions are not equivalent and are presented separately.

Why Is This Important?

The prevalence of sexual violence and intimate partner violence is a major public health concern in Alaska.^1^ Witnessing or being a victim of domestic violence is associated with high rates of fair-to-poor assessments of general health, asthma diagnoses, current smoking, and lack of emotional support.^2^ Individuals diagnosed with anxiety and/or depression have some of the highest prevalence of sexual and intimate partner violence.^3^[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 1. Alaska's Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence Strategic Plan. April 2009. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Documents/HealthPromotion/pubs/RPEplan_6-09.pdf]. 2. Effects of domestic violence on children - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_domestic_violence_on_children]. Accessed 4/22/2016. 3. The Mental Health Effects of Sexual Assault and Abuse. [http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/issues/sexual-abuse]. Accessed 4/22/2016. }}

Healthy People Objective: (Developmental) Reduce physical violence by current or former intimate partners

U.S. Target: Developmental

Other Objectives

Healthy Alaskans 2020 Leading Health Indicator 13: Reduce the percentage of adolescents (high school students in grades 9-12) who were ever hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend during the past 12 months to 8% by 2020.

How Are We Doing?

In 2015, physical dating violence among adolescents (high school students in grades 9-12) was 9.5% for all Alaska adolescents and 9.8% for Alaska Native adolescents, virtually unchanged from the levels in 2013. Prevalence rates from the YRBS are initially presented for the current definition for physical dating violence by all Alaska adolescents, Alaska Native adolescents, and the mean of the national YRBS. These data are followed by estimates on dating violence from the period of 2003 to 2011 for the same groups. Subsequent analyses display dating violence by demographic subpopulations (i.e., sex, age, race/ethnicity, ethnicity, grade level, and academic achievement) and regions. Questions on adolescent dating violence have been asked on the YRBS since 2003. The question on dating violence changed in 2013 preventing comparisons with earlier time periods.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

In 2013 (the latest national data currently available), physical dating violence among all Alaska adolescents (9.1%) and Alaska Native adolescents (10.3%) was slightly lower than the national average of 10.4%.

What Is Being Done?

The Alaska Network on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault has developed "Pathways to Prevent Domestic Violence, A Plan for Alaska 2010-2016" to address domestic violence and teen dating violence.^4^ The Stand Up Speak Up Alaska program promotes 6 steps to healthy relationships: (1) Relationship Basics, (2) Keep Respect Going, (3) Building a Peer Culture, (4) Leading the Way, (5) Respecting Yourself, and (6) Getting Help.^5^ In 2015, the Alaska legislature passed the Alaska Safe Children's Act that requires school districts to provide age-appropriate child sexual assault, teen dating and youth suicide prevention curricula to all students. It includes a provision that mandates teen dating violence education in middle schools and high schools. A task force has until June 2016 to make recommendations to the Department of Education and Early Development on that curricula. Schools have until 2017 to comply with the Alaska Safe Children's Act.[[br]] [[br]] ---- {{class .SmallerFont 4. Prevention Domestic Violence and Teen Dating Violence. Alaska Network on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault website. [http://www.andvsa.org/]. 4. Stand Up Speak Up Alaska. [http://www.standupspeakupalaska.org/]. }}

Evidence-based Practices

As part of the Healthy Alaskans 2020 health improvement process, groups of Alaska subject matter experts met over a period of months in a rigorous review process to identify and prioritize strategies to address the 25 health priorities. Public health partners around the state are aligning work around these approaches adapted to Alaska's unique needs. Below are the strategies identified for enhancing adolescent support systems. '''Strategy 1:''' [[br]]Build community capacity for prevention. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]The standard for community-based dating violence prevention work in Alaska is based on the prevention model developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Working with communities to build their capacity to support the work of prevention is the first step towards building comprehensive programming. Comprehensive programming coordinates strategies across multiple settings and populations within each community. Coordinated programming that includes multiple types of activities across multiple settings and populations is most effective in changing the behaviors, beliefs, and norms that impact the incidence of dating violence. '''Sources:''' [[br]][http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/DELTA/index.html?s_cid=cd_281 Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancement and Leadership Through Alliances (DELTA)] CDC [http://www.cdc.gov/prc/prevention-strategies/index.htm Prevention Strategies] [http://www.andvsa.org/pathways-statewide-prevention/ ANDVSA Pathways Statewide Prevention] Sabol WJ, Coulton CJ, Korbin JE. Building Community Capacity for Violence Prevention. J Interpers Violence. 2004; 19(3): 322-340. Chavis DM. Building community capacity to prevent violence through coalitions and partnerships. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 1995; 6(2): 234-245. '''Strategy 2:*''' [[br]]Promote values and beliefs that reinforce safe and healthy relationships. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]This strategy emerges from the social norms approach where inaccurate perceptions about norms, values, beliefs, and risk and protective factors are corrected to facilitate health promotion and violence prevention. Social norms interventions have been successfully used by other prevention efforts (e.g., obesity prevention, binge drinking, and tobacco cessation). Research is starting to show positive impacts on violence prevention. '''Strategy 3:*''' [[br]]Implement evidence-based school violence prevention programs. '''Evidence Base:''' [[br]]Schools provide an important setting for dating violence prevention because "they are a setting in which much interpersonal aggression among children occurs and the only setting with almost universal access to children" (Wilson and Lipsey, 2007). This provides schools with a unique opportunity to intervene and to prevent dating violence. Universal or comprehensive approaches, such as the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child model, have been found to be particularly effective. The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child model is an ecological approach that "responds to the call for greater alignment, integration, and collaboration between health and education to improve each child's cognitive, physical, social, and emotional development" (ASCD, 2014). School connectedness is an important protective factor that provides a foundation for effective prevention efforts. * Sources for Strategy 2 and Strategy 3 can be found at [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/EBS/HA2020_EBS13_DatingViolence-Youth.pdf]. A listing of strategies, actions, and key partners on this measure can be found at: [http://hss.state.ak.us/ha2020/assets/Actions-Partners_13_DatingViolence.pdf].


Related Indicators

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Among students who dated or went out with someone, the percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were physically hurt on purpose by someone they were dating during the past 12 months, all Alaskans, Alaska Natives, and U.S., 2013-2020

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Starting in 2013, the question was: "During the past 12 months, how many times did someone you were dating hurt you on purpose? (Count such things as being hit, slammed into something, or injured with an object or weapon." with responses from 0 times to 6 or more times.
Alaska ComparisonsYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 10
All Alaskans20139.1%7.3%11.2%69769
All Alaskans20159.5%7.5%12.1%83857
Alaska Natives201310.3%7.0%15.0%21194
Alaska Natives20159.8%5.7%16.1%23229
U.S.201310.4%9.4%11.5%9,930
U.S.2015**
Healthy Alaskans Goal20138.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20158.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20178.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20198.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available

Data Sources

  • [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
  • Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention


Percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were ever hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend during the past 12 months, all Alaskans, Alaska Natives, and U.S., 2003-2011

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Between 2003 and 2011, adolescent dating violence was measured by this question. These data on not comparable to the dating violence question asked in 2013 and later.
Alaska ComparisonsYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 15
All Alaskans200310.8%9.2%12.6%1571,468
All Alaskans2005**
All Alaskans200712.4%10.3%14.7%1731,305
All Alaskans200913.3%11.4%15.4%1791,362
All Alaskans201112.0%9.6%15.0%1591,323
Alaska Natives200311.6%8.9%15.1%34291
Alaska Natives2005**
Alaska Natives200710.0%5.9%16.5%31254
Alaska Natives200910.5%6.4%16.6%33301
Alaska Natives201110.1%5.9%16.7%33304
U.S.20038.9%7.9%9.9%
U.S.20059.2%8.5%9.8%
U.S.20079.9%8.9%11.1%
U.S.20099.8%8.9%10.8%
U.S.20119.4%8.6%10.3%

Data Notes

** = Data not available Definition: Dating violence among adolescents (grades 9-12) was measured on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) between 2003 and 2011 by the question: "During the past 12 months, did your boyfriend or girlfriend ever hit, slap, or physically hurt you on purpose?" with responses of Yes and No. Numerator: Weighted number of adolescents responding on the YRBS to the question: "During the past 12 months, did your boyfriend or girlfriend ever hit, slap, or physically hurt you on purpose?" with responses of Yes and No. Denominator: Weighted number of adolescents (grade 9-12) responding on the YRBS to the dating violence question with complete and valid responses. This version of the dating violence question was asked between 2003 and 2011.

Data Sources

  • [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
  • Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention


Among students who dated or went out with someone, the percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were hurt on purpose by someone they were dating during the past 12 months, by sex, all Alaskans, 2013-2020

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Males vs. FemalesYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 8
Males20136.2%4.3%8.9%25384
Males20158.2%5.6%11.7%35425
Females201311.3%8.6%14.8%40380
Females201510.5%7.4%14.9%46428
Healthy Alaskans Goal20138.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20158.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20178.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20198.0%

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Among students who dated or went out with someone, the percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were physically hurt on purpose by someone they were dating during the past 12 months, by age, all Alaskans, 2013-2020

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Adolescent Age GroupsYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 14
14 or Younger2013**66
14 or Younger2015**68
1520136.0%3.4%10.4%12195
1520156.9%3.9%11.9%14194
1620134.7%2.6%8.4%9180
1620157.2%4.5%11.5%18251
17201312.8%8.3%19.2%22195
17201512.2%8.4%17.3%28216
18 or Older201311.4%6.9%18.2%16132
18 or Older201515.0%10.2%21.6%19125
Healthy Alaskans Goal20138.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20158.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20178.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20198.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Among students who dated or went out with someone, the percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were physically hurt on purpose by someone they were dating during the past 12 months, by race, all Alaskans, 2013-2020

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Race: White, AK Native, OtherYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 10
White20137.1%5.0%10.1%27376
White20158.4%5.8%12.0%35406
Alaska Native201310.3%7.0%15.0%21194
Alaska Native20159.8%5.7%16.1%23226
Other races201310.9%7.3%16.0%18172
Other races201512.1%7.7%18.4%22185
Healthy Alaskans Goal20138.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20158.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20178.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20198.0%

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Among students who dated or went out with someone, the percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend during the past 12 months, by Hispanic, all Alaskans, 2013-2020

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Ethnicity - Hispanic/LatinoYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 8
Hispanic/Latino2013**79
Hispanic/Latino2015**88
Not Hispanic/Latino20138.2%6.3%10.5%55673
Not Hispanic/Latino20159.6%7.4%12.4%73748
Healthy Alaskans Goal20138.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20158.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20178.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20198.0%

Data Notes

** = Data not available due to fewer than 100 respondents in the denominator.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Among students who dated or went out with someone, the percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend during the past 12 months, by grade level, all Alaskans, 2013-2020

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Grade LevelYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 12
9th20139.3%6.0%14.1%20187
9th20155.3%2.6%10.6%9171
10th20136.6%3.5%12.3%11194
10th20157.0%4.4%10.9%18243
11th20138.1%5.2%12.6%15178
11th201510.0%6.8%14.5%24237
12th201311.1%6.8%17.4%20202
12th201514.2%9.4%20.8%29196
Healthy Alaskans Goal20138.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20158.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20178.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20198.0%

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Among students who dated or went out with someone, the percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend during the past 12 months, by academic performance, all Alaskans, 2013-2020

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

HA: Academic PerformanceYearPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 8
Mostly As and Bs20137.8%5.8%10.5%41529
Mostly As and Bs20158.7%6.4%11.8%50522
Not mostly As and Bs201311.1%7.9%15.3%26231
Not mostly As and Bs201511.5%8.3%15.7%33275
Healthy Alaskans Goal20138.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20158.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20178.0%
Healthy Alaskans Goal20198.0%

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Among students who dated or went out with someone, the percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were physically hurt on purpose by someone they were dating during the past 12 months, by Behavioral Health Systems Regions, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsBehavioral Health System Assessment RegionsPercentage of adolescentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 21
All AlaskansAnchorage Muncipality9.5%7.6%11.9%87739
All AlaskansFairbanks North Star Borough**232
All AlaskansCity and Borough of Juneau7.5%5.7%9.8%23274
All AlaskansKenai Peninsula Borough8.1%6.0%10.8%53637
All AlaskansMatanuska-Susitna Borough10.5%8.0%13.7%87704
All AlaskansNorthwest Region10.9%9.1%13.1%61531
All AlaskansOther Interior Region16.7%9.8%27.2%27188
All AlaskansOther Southeast Region8.7%6.3%11.8%51554
All AlaskansY-K Delta Region17.2%14.2%20.7%17113
All AlaskansSouthwest Region6.9%4.1%11.4%19256
Alaska NativesAnchorage Muncipality15.8%9.3%25.4%29153
Alaska NativesFairbanks North Star Borough**44
Alaska NativesCity and Borough of Juneau**41
Alaska NativesKenai Peninsula Borough**91
Alaska NativesMatanuska-Susitna Borough9.9%5.9%15.9%21168
Alaska NativesNorthwest Region10.8%9.0%13.0%50445
Alaska NativesOther Interior Region12.8%8.6%18.7%15117
Alaska NativesOther Southeast Region12.4%8.0%18.7%20158
Alaska NativesY-K Delta Region19.0%15.7%23.0%17104
Alaska NativesSouthwest Region6.1%2.4%14.9%7119
Healthy Alaskans GoalHealthy Alaskans Goal8.0%

Data Notes

** = Data statistically unreliable or suppressed. Data for the Fairbanks North Star Borough were collected by the Fairbanks North Star Borough School District, which has reserved access to the data. Requests for the information should be addressed to the FNSBSD Superintendent, Dr. Karen Gaborik at superintendent@k12northstar.org or (907) 452-2000 x11401. These data are a regional compilation of YRBS surveys conducted for local school districts. They represent a combination of samples representative of the student bodies of districts and others which are only representative of those completing the survey. The representative samples have been weighted to the sex and grade characteristics of their school district. The unrepresentative surveys have a weight of 1. The results of the local YRBS program may not meet the statistical rigor of the statewide estimates and should be viewed with caution. However, the local YRBS program does demonstrate the existence of risk factors.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Among students who dated or went out with someone, the percentage of adolescents (students in grades 9-12 in traditional high schools) who were physically hurt on purpose by someone they were dating during the past 12 months, by Alaska Economic Regions, all Alaskans and Alaska Natives, 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Alaska ComparisonsAlaska Public Health RegionsPercentage of adultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 13
All AlaskansAnchorage - Mat-Su9.8%8.2%11.7%1741,443
All AlaskansGulf Coast9.3%6.9%12.3%77841
All AlaskansInterior6.0%4.1%8.6%33376
All AlaskansNorthern10.9%9.1%13.1%61531
All AlaskansSoutheast8.1%6.6%10.0%74828
All AlaskansSouthwest11.2%8.7%14.3%21209
Alaska NativesAnchorage - Mat-Su13.8%9.1%20.3%50321
Alaska NativesGulf Coast8.0%4.3%14.5%11134
Alaska NativesInterior7.5%4.2%13.2%17156
Alaska NativesNorthern10.8%9.0%13.0%50445
Alaska NativesSoutheast10.9%7.3%15.9%24199
Alaska NativesSouthwest12.8%9.7%16.8%21185
Healthy Alaskans GoalHealthy Alaskans Goal8.0%

Data Notes

These data are a regional compilation of YRBS surveys conducted for local school districts. They represent a combination of samples representative of the student bodies of districts and others which are only representative of those completing the survey. The representative samples have been weighted to the sex and grade characteristics of their school district. The unrepresentative surveys have a weight of 1. The results of the local YRBS program may not meet the statistical rigor of the statewide estimates and should be viewed with caution. However, the local YRBS program does demonstrate the existence of risk factors although their exact magnitude may be in question.

Data Source

[http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Pages/yrbs/yrbs.aspx Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System], Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

References and Community Resources

'''References:''' 1. Alaska's Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence Strategic Plan. April 2009. [http://dhss.alaska.gov/dph/Chronic/Documents/HealthPromotion/pubs/RPEplan_6-09.pdf]. 2. Effects of domestic violence on children - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_domestic_violence_on_children]. Accessed 4/22/2016. 3. The Mental Health Effects of Sexual Assault and Abuse. [http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/issues/sexual-abuse]. Accessed 4/22/2016. 4. Prevention Domestic Violence and Teen Dating Violence. Alaska Network on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault website. [http://www.andvsa.org/]. 5. Stand Up Speak Up Alaska. [http://www.standupspeakupalaska.org/].

More Resources and Links

Alaska and national goals may be found at the following sites:

Alaska health promotion resources may be found at the following site:

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Maps of health indicators for various subdivisions of Alaska may be found at the following site:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

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Page Content Updated On 04/22/2016, Published on 04/22/2016
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Content updated: Fri, 22 Apr 2016 14:03:51 AKDT
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Content updated: Fri, 22 Apr 2016 14:03:51 AKDT